Monday, 12 December 2011

The Permissibility of Reciting the Qur'an at the graves of the dead and donating the rewards of its recitation to the deceased


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Allah says:

Those who come after them say, ‘Our Lord, forgive us and our brothers who came before us in faith...’” (Q59:10)

Meaning those who have passed away, who benefit from the supplications of the living, as is clearly seen here.

Also:And ask forgiveness for your faults, and for the believing men and women” (Q47:19), with no specification here of it only applying to the currently living believers and excluding the dead ones.
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The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, Read Ya Siin over your deceased.”221

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) sacrificed two white rams, one for himself and family and the other for his community. 222

The evidence here is that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) offered sacrificial animals and donated the reward to his community, which includes both the living and the dead, whether for those existing at his time or for those coming after.

A person asked the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), “My mother has passed away, will she benefit if I give charity on her behalf?” and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) answered: “Yes.”223

Someone else asked him, “My mother has passed away, and yet she did not make up a month’s worth of fasting, so should I fast on her behalf?” and he said, “Yes.” 224
Similarly, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم ) said: Whoever dies without making up an obligatory fast that he had missed, let his/her patron (wali) fast on his/her behalf.” 225
And as for Hajj, there are also many such hadiths.226
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‘Ata’ ibn Abi Rabah said: I heard Ibn ‘Umar say: I heard the Prophet say: “When one of you dies do not tarry, but make haste and take him to his grave, and let someone read at his head the opening of Surat al-Baqara, and at his feet its closure when he lies in the grave.” 227

This is supported by the fact that Ibn Abi Shayba (Musannaf 3:123), Shawkani (Nayl al-Awtar 3:25) and others recorded that the Ansar saw it as desirable to recite al-Baqara and al-Ra’d to the dead.

‘Ala’ ibn al-Lajlaj said to his children: “When you bury me, say as you place me in the side-opening (lahd) of the grave: Bismillah wa ‘ala millati rasulillah – (In the name of Allah and according to the way of Allah’s Messenger) -- then flatten the earth over me, and read at the head of my grave the beginning of Surat al-Baqara and its end, for I have heard Abdullah Ibn ‘Umar recommend the same228, and in other narrations “the Messenger of Allah recommend it.”

It was also related (thru Abu Bakr and Abu Hurayra) that He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:
Whoever visits the grave of his parents or the grave of one of them every Friday (and recites Ya Siin), he will be forgiven and his name will be written among the pious.” 229

Also, we know that the deceased are affected by the actions of their living relatives in a negative sense, 230 so there is no reason they would not be affected by the positive actions of their living relatives, such as reciting Qur’an for them, paying off their debts, 231 etc.

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Shaykh Muwaffaq Ibn Qudama al-Maqdisi, the leading scholar of the Hanbali Madhhab during his time, wrote (Mughni 2:426-27) the following:

There is no harm in reciting Qur’an at the graves (of the dead), and it was narrated that Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal said, ‘If you enter a graveyard, then recite Ayat ul-Kursi and surat al-Ikhlas 3 times, then say “O Allah, this is on behalf of the occupants of these graves”.’ And Imam Ahmad used to say that reciting Qur’an at the graves is a bid’a (innovation), but later recanted this view and agreed it was permissible, and did it himself. 232 … It was also narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

‘Whoever enters a graveyard and recites surat Ya Siin then their punishment is lightened for them on that day, and he receives rewards equal to the number of people in the grave, and also, ‘whoever visits the grave of his parents and reads Ya Siin for them, then he is forgiven’.”

He also wrote:Any voluntary act of devotion which the Muslim performs, and then gifts its reward to the deceased Muslim, then that deceased Muslim will benefit from it...”
And he said (Mughni 2:429):

“And it is the consensus of the Muslims, in every time and place, that they meet together to recite the Qur’an and donate its rewards to their deceased, without any objection, and because it is authentically narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, ‘the dead is bothered by the wailing of the living over him,’ and Allah is too generous to deliver punishment to them and not deliver reward.
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Similarly, Imam Nawawi commented on the famous hadith wherein the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and some Companions passed by two graves, and he said, “they are being punished, but for something minor; as for one of them, he used to carry false tales, and as for the other, he did not used to purify himself from traces of urine,” then he called for a green date-palm stalk and split it in two, and placed one part over one grave and another over the other grave, and said, “Their punishments will be lightened as long as these remain green and do not wither up, in sha’allah.” 233

Then Imam Nawawi said (Sharh Sahih Muslim 3:202):

“Due to this hadith, the ‘Ulama have declared it recommended (mustahabb) to recite Qur’an at the graves, because if the lessening of punishment could be hoped for from the glorification of a palm stalk, then the recitation of Qur’an is more worthy of this special distinction...and Allah knows best.”

Imam Suyuti in his book Sharh as-Sudur (p. 312-313) also stated that it is authentically established that among the Companions, Abu Barza al-Aslami (as narrated by Ibn ‘Asakir 62:100) and Burayda (as narrated by Bukhari in his Sahih – K Jana’iz) asked to be buried together with two fresh stalks!

Imam Nawawi also advised in his book Minhaj at-Talibin (chapter on funerals): “Whoever visits a grave, let him greet its dweller, recite some Qur’an, and make an invocation for the deceased.”

He also said (Adhkar, p. 218), “It is desirable (yustahabb) that one who is visiting the graves recite from the Qur’an what is easy for him to recite, after which, that he invoke Allah on their behalf. Shafi’i stipulated it and his companions all agreed with him.”

Imam Suyuti also records Imam al-Qurtubi, the Maliki scholar and mufassir, as saying that,
“As for reciting over the grave, then our companions (Malikis) are categorical that it is lawful, and others say the same.”

And Qurtubi wrote in his Tadhkira:

“The legal basis for this is the permissibility of sadaqa on behalf of the dead, which no one disagrees about. And just as its rewards reach the dead, so do the rewards of Qur’an recitation and du’a, for all of that is sadaqa, and sadaqa does not only refer to money.”
Nafrawi al-Maliki states (Fawakih Dawani 1:284):

“al-Qarafi said that that which is apparent is the obtainment of the blessing of the Qur’an-recital for the dead, just as blessing is obtained by being buried next to the righteous. Therefore, it is not appropriate to abandon the Qur’an-recital and invocations (tahlil) performed on their behalf, and in all of that one relies on Allah and His bountiful mercy.
The author of the Madkhal (Ibn al-Haj) stated that whoever desires to actualize the blessing and reward of Qur’an-recital for the dead in a way which avoids any difference of opinion between the scholars (satisfying all of their conditions), then he should make it a supplication and say, ‘O Allah! Cause the reward of what we recite to reach so-and-so’, and in this way the dead gets the reward of the recital, and he gets the reward of du’a”.

Ibn ‘Abidin al-Hanafi (Hashiya 2:243) said:

In visiting graves one may recite Fatiha, Baqara, Ya Siin, Mulk, Takathur, and Ikhlas 12, 11, 7, or 3 times, and then say, ‘O Allah, convey the reward of what I have recited to so-and-so (one or many)’” 234.

He (Hashiya 2:595-96), along with Kamal ibn al-Humam al-Hanafi in Sharh Fath al-qadir, also stated that every single act of worship, including Qur’an-recital, could be donated to the deceased.

The Hanafi faqih ‘Uthman al-Zayla’i said: “There is nothing rationally far-fetched in the reaching of someone else’s reward to the dead because it is nothing more than the placing of what he possesses of reward at someone else’s disposal, and it is Allah Who is the One Who conveys it, and He is able to do that.”

So we see the major scholars of all four madhahib agreeing 235 that it is recommended to recite the Qur’an at the graves and donate its reward to the deceased.
As for the hadith that states that “all of the actions of the son of Adam after he dies are cut off except for three...”, 236 then there is no proof in this against what we are saying, for this refers to his own actions being cut off, not the actions of the living, nor their rewards reaching him, as the rewards continue to reach the dead even though their own actions are finished. And as for the verse that states, “man can have nothing but what he strives for” (Q53:39), then this also does not constitute a proof against what we are saying here.

Firstly, Ibn ‘Abbas stated it is abrogated by Q52:21, and ‘Ikrima stated it only applies to the people (Qawm) of Ibrahim (AS) and Musa (AS).

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Also, Ibn Qayyim said (Kitab ar-Ruh, Ch. 16), “the Qur’an did not deny the person’s benefiting from the striving of someone else, but rather it denied his possession and ownership of other than his own striving; and between the two the difference is clear.”


He also wrote in the same book, “As for one who says, None of the Salaf have done this,’ then these are the words of someone who has no knowledge.”

Consider these words of Ibn Qayyim, for we see today some people falsely thinking that if the Salaf did not do something, then that constitutes a proof of the prohibition of that thing.
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To conclude, it is not only permissible but recommended to recite Qur’an at the graves of deceased Muslims, and donate the rewards of the recitation to the deceased, and also the rewards of other acts of worship, such as charity, fasting, pilgrimage, etc...

Ref:

221 Recorded by Abu Dawud (#2714), Ibn Majah (1:466 #1438), Hakim (1:565 Sahih), Ibn Hibban (7:269 #3002 Sahih), Imam Ahmad (5:26), Nasa’i (‘Amal Yowm… #1074-75, Sunan Kubra 6:265), Baghawi in Sharh as- Sunna (#1464), Bayhaqi in his Sunan al-Kubra (3:383) and Shu’ab (#2457-58), Ibn Abi Shayba (3:124), Tayalisi (#973), Tabarani (20:219-20, 231). Suyuti said it is Sahih (Jami’ Saghir, #8937), while Daraqutni and Nawawi (Adhkar, p. 198) said it is Da’if. Cf. ‘Ajluni’s Kashf al-Khafa’ (#709).
Also, Imam Ahmad in his Musnad (4:105 #16355) stated that, “The Shaykhs used to say that if Ya Siin is recited for the dead person, then the torment of the grave is lightened for him by it,” and Ibn Hajar ‘Asqalani declared this narration (also in Daylami’s Firdaws 4:108 #5834) Hasan in his Isaba (3:184). See also his Talkhis al-Habir (2:104) and Ibn Kathir’s Tafsir (3:563).
Imam Shawkani (Nayl al-Awtar, 3:25) and others stated that the primary and preferred meaning is the literal one, namely, the already deceased, and that taking it to mean those in the last moments of their life is a metaphorical extension that is unwarranted but acceptable.
222 Recorded by Ibn Sa’d (Tabaqat, 1:249), Ibn Majah (#3112), Darimi (#1864), Abu Ya’la (#1792, 2806, 3076, 3118, 3136, 3247-48 Sahih), Daraqutni (Sunan, 4:278, 284-85), ‘Abd ibn Humayd (#1144), Bazzar (Zawa’id, 2:62), Tabarani in Kabir (1:312, 5:111) and Awsat (2:250, 3:319, 6:300), and Ruyani (Musnad, #991).
223 Bukhari (#1299, 2554), Muslim (Kitab al-Wasiyya, chapter “on the rewards of charity reaching the dead” #3082-83), Nasa’i (#3589), Imam Malik (#1255), Imam Ahmad (6:51 #23117), and others.
224 Bukhari (#1817), Muslim (#1936-38), Imam Ahmad (1:216, 227, 2:181, 4:405, 5:359), and others.
225 Bukhari (#1816), Muslim (#1935), and many others.
226 See for example: Bukhari (#6204-05), Muslim (2:805 #1939), Nasa’i (#2585-87), Abu Dawud (2:162 #1545 46), Tirmidhi (Kitab al-Hajj, #852), Ahmad (5:359), Daraqutni (Sunan, 2:260), Bazzar (Zawa’id, 2:36), Tabarani (M. al-Kabir 1:258 #748, Hasan according to Haythami in Majma’ 3:282; M. Awsat 8:11), etc.
227 Bayhaqi in his Shu’ab al-Iman (7:16 #9294), Daylami (Firdaws, 1:350 #1124), and Tabarani in al-Mu`jam al-Kabir (12:444 #13613). Haythami said in Majma’ al-Zawa’id (3:44) that the latter’s chain contains Yahya ibn `Abd Allah al-Dahhak, who is weak. However, Ibn Hajar said it was Hasan in Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 3:184).
228 Recorded by Bayhaqi in his Sunan (4:56, Hasan – Nawawi’s Adhkar p. 219), Tabarani (M. Kabir, 19:220 – Haythami said its narrators were declared trustworthy, in Majma’ 3:44 #4243), Ibn ‘Asakir (Tarikh, 47:230), Abu Bakr al-Khallal’s Amr bi’l Ma’ruf (#237) and his “Recitation at the graves”, and Dinawari’s Mujalasa (#757 Da’if). See also Ibn Hajar’s Talkhis al-Habir (2:129-130) and Shawkani’s Tuhfat al-Dhakirin (p. 229).
229 Recorded by Bayhaqi (Shu’ab al-Iman, 6:201 #7901), Tabarani (M Awsat 6:175, M Saghir 2:69 – Da’if: Haythami’s Majma’ 3:60), Daylami (Firdaws, 4:140 #5945), Hakim Tirmidhi (Asl #15), Ibn Abi Dunya in Makarim al-Akhlaq (#249), Ibn ‘Adiyy (Kamil, 5:1801), Ibn Najjar, and others. Hadith Da’if.
230 The Prophet (PBUH) said: “The deceased is bothered in his grave by that which botheres him in his house” (Daylami from A’isha), and “The deceased is bothered by the grieving and wailing of his relatives over him” (Bukhari #1208-10, Muslim #1539-40, Tabarani 25:10), and he (PBUH) saw someone sitting on a grave (to relieve himself) and told him, “Get off this grave, do not harm the inhabitant of this grave, so he will not harm you” (Ahmad 5:223, Tabarani – Majma’ 3:61, Hakim 3:590, Tahawi 1:515, Abu Nu’aym in Ma’rifat Sahaba #1981). For more, see Suyuti’s Sharh as-Sudur (Ch. 46-48) and ‘Ajluni’s Kashf (#789).
231 Suyuti (Sharh, Ch. 42) cited 8 narrations to the effect that the souls of the departed are trapped and prevented from reaching their ultimate stations of honor because of unpaid debts, and when payed they are freed; from Tirmidhi (#998-99), Ibn Majah (#2404), Ahmad (2:440, 475, 5:20), Bayhaqi (Sunan 4:61, 6:49, 76, Shu’ab 4:401), Tabarani (Kabir 7:178, Awsat 5:258), Ibn Hibban (7:331 #3061), Abu Ya’la (#6026), and others.
232 This was recorded by Abu Bakr al-Khallal al-Hanbali in his Amr bi’l Ma’ruf (p. 122 #240-41), who also recorded that Ishaq ibn Rahawayh saw no problem in reciting Qur’an at graves (p. 123 #245).
233 Recorded by Imam Bukhari (#209, 1273, 1289), Muslim (#439), Nasa’i (#31, 2041), and others.
234 Perhaps this is from the hadith which states, “Whoever passes by some graves and recites surat Ikhlas 11 (or 21) times then gifts the reward of that to the inhabitants of the graveyard, then he will receive a reward according to the number of the dead in the graves.” Recorded by Daylami (Firdaws, 4:38), Imam Rafi’i in his Tarikh Qazwin (2:297), Abu Bakr Najjar, and Abu Muhammad Samarqandi (Suyuti’s Sharh as-Sudur Ch. 51). And the hadith: “The dead in his grave is like the drowning man calling for help, waiting for a du’a from a father or mother or son or trustworthy friend…” (Bayhaqi’s Shu’ab 6:203, 7:16, Daylami’s Firdaws, 4:391).
235 For more, see: (Hanafi): Zayla’i in Tabyin al-Haqa’iq 2:83 (“Hajj on behalf of another person”), Tahtawi’s Hashiyat Maraqi al-Falah p. 413; (Maliki): Mawahib al-Jalil 2:237-38, Dusuqi’s Hashiya 1:423, Ibn Rushd’s Nawazil; (Shafi’i): Nawawi’s Majmu’ 5:294, Rawdat at-Talibin 5:191, and Sharh Muslim 1:89-90, Ibn Hajar’s Jawab al-Kafi, Ibn Daqiq al-‘Eid’s Ihkam al-Ahkam 1:106; (Hanbali): Ibn Muflih’s Mubdi’ 2:281, Mardawi’s Insaf 2:557, and Fatawa Ibn Taymiyya (24:306-15, 324, 366-67). Also: al-Jaziri’s Fiqh ‘ala al-Madhahib al-Arba’a (1:551-52).
236 Recorded by Muslim (#3084), Ibn Majah (#238), Ibn Khuzayma (#2490, 2494-95), and many others.
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Shaykh Sayyed Abu’l Hasan Ali an-Nadwi

(Ibn Taymiyyah’s Life and Achievements)

Published by UK Islamic Academy
Quote:


[...]


"At last the procession reached Suq al-Khalil where another funeral service was led by Ibn Taymiyyah’s younger brother Zain-ud-din Abdur-Rahman

After the service, Ibn Taymiyyah was laid to rest in Maqbarat-us-Sufiyah (1) by the side of his brother, Sharaf-ud-din Abdullah. 

"It is estimated that some 60,000 to 100,000 persons of which at least 15,000 were women joined the funeral procession. (Ibn Katheer, vol.XIV pp 136-9)

In several Islamic countries lying to the south and east of Syria funeral services were held in absentia for Ibn Taymiyyah. 

Ibn Rajab, a chronicler who write Tabalaqat-ul-Hanabilah, says that funeral services were also held in several nearer and far-off lands like Yemen and China.

“The funeral service of an expositor of the Qur’aan will now be held,” was the announcement made after Friday Prayuers in a far-off city according to travellers returning from China."

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The Lofty Virtues Of Ibn Taymiyyah , Page 33-34:

“He was buried that day (may Allāh be Pleased with him and allow us to be granted similar
blessings once again). The people then began gathering from the various villages and towns
riding and on foot to pray in turns over his grave, and whenever news of his death reached a
certain land, they would offer the prayer in absentia for him in all of its mosques, especially
in the towns and villages of Egypt, Shām, Iraq, Tabrīz, al-Basrah, etc.

And the Qur’ān was completed for him more times than can be counted in many places during the days and nights following his death, especially in Damascus, Egypt, Iraq, Tabrīz, al-Basrah, etc. to the point that reciting the Qur’ān for him became a habit for the people, and copies of the mushaf  would be passed around for them to read for him.”

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Ibn Abdul Hadi says about Ibn Taymiyyah's grave 

(Al-Uqud Ad-Durriyyah, 1/434):

"The angels are around his grave are making tawaf"

 (so according to the Wahhabiyyah these angels are Quburi mushriks!!!)

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A Man Reciting Surat Al-Mulk in The Grave:

Mistranslation of Hadith by Dar-us-Salam

Imam At-Tirmidhi narrates the following incident:



حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ أَبِي الشَّوَارِبِ حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ عَمْرِو بْنِ مَالِكٍ النُّكْرِيُّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ أَبِي الْجَوْزَاءِ عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ ضَرَبَ بَعْضُ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ خِبَاءَهُ عَلَى قَبْرٍ وَهُوَ لَا يَحْسِبُ أَنَّهُ قَبْرٌ فَإِذَا فِيهِ إِنْسَانٌ يَقْرَأُ سُورَةَ تَبَارَكَ الَّذِي بِيَدِهِ الْمُلْكُ حَتَّى خَتَمَهَا فَأَتَى النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنِّي ضَرَبْتُ خِبَائِي عَلَى قَبْرٍ وَأَنَا لَا أَحْسِبُ أَنَّهُ قَبْرٌ فَإِذَا فِيهِ إِنْسَانٌ يَقْرَأُ سُورَةَ تَبَارَكَ الْمُلْكِ حَتَّى خَتَمَهَا فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ هِيَ الْمَانِعَةُ هِيَ الْمُنْجِيَةُ تُنْجِيهِ مِنْ عَذَابِ الْقَبْرِ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ غَرِيبٌ مِنْ هَذَا الْوَجْهِ

Muhammad ibn Abdul Malik ibn Abish-Shawarib
Yahya ibn ‘Amru ibn Malik An-Nukri
from his father from Abil Jawzaa’
Ibn ‘Abbas (radiya Allahu anhu) who said,

“One of the companions of the Prophet [Muhammad] set up a tent on a grave while not aware that it was a grave. The man heard the person within the grave reciting Surat Al-Mulk until it was completed. So the man came to the Nabi (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and informed him of what occurred. The Nabi (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “It is a prevention! It is a salvation saving one from the punishment of the grave!”

The following is the scan of how it was translated by the Wahhabi publisher Dar-Us-Salam:

See: Here

Their translation claims that the man who placed his “tent” over the grave was the one who recited it, not the person that was in the grave! It does seem that this hadith is weak, as claimed in the takhrij, though Imam At-Tirmidhi does declare the hadith Hasan.

[Source: seekingilm, where it was also mentioned that the translation of

 فَإِذَا فِيهِ إِنْسَانٌ يَقْرَأُ سُورَةَ تَبَارَكَ الَّذِي بِيَدِهِ الْمُلْكُ حَتَّى خَتَمَهَا
should have been: In it [the grave] was a person who recited Surat al Mulk until its end.] 


Posted on September 2, 2008 by Abu Layth


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Also read:



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