Tuesday, 17 December 2019

Reading Quran over the deceased by Dr. Yasir Qadhi



Reading Quran over the deceased:

The issue of 'gifting good deeds to the deceased' is one that the early scholars differed over; however in our times the vast majority of the Ummah allows reciting the Quran and gifting the rewards to a deceased Muslim.

The famous Ḥanbali jurist and theologian Ibn Qudāmah al-Maqdisī (d. 620 AH) writes, "There is unanimous consensus amongst the Muslims that people may gather and recite the Quran over the deceased, as this has been happening in every time and every land (fī kulli `asr wa miṣr) without any disapproval of this act" (See: al-Mughnī, vol. 3, p. 522). Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn al-Qayyim both also write in support of reading Quran and gifting it to the deceased.

While Imam al-Shafi'ī himself believed that such an act doesn't reach the deceased, Imam Abu Ḥanifa and his school, Imam Ibn Ḥanbal and his school, and the vast majority of later Shafi'īs and Mālikīs considered this to be praiseworthy and acceptable.

It is also important to mention that even those who disagreed, like Imam al-Shafi`ī, never claimed that it was an innovation to gift one's recitation to the deceased: they merely viewed it as a legal issue and held the opinion that if it were done, the rewards would not reach the deceased. In fact, to the best of my knowledge I am not aware of *any* classical or medieval scholar who made this issue one of 'innovation' (bid'a).

This, of course, is in start contrast to a modern iteration of the Ḥanbali school which claims to follow Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn al-Qayyim and the salaf, but (and not only in this instance) clearly contradicts the positions of the early scholars and the icons of Islam.

Of course, in the comments below, I am expecting that people will now paste fatāwā from a dozen or more contemporary scholars, some of whom I studied with directly, and all of whom I respect. That's great, and may Allah reward you for your zeal.

But, let's be clear here. We have Imam Aḥmad, Ibn Qudamah, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, and the majority of the salaf and khalaf on one side, and then we have a few (respected) modern voices on the other. 

I personally would rather go with the former group (and the actual salaf) than the latter (who are actually bringing an unprecedented opinion on the issue anyway). You are free to choose otherwise, just don't make the majority of the Ummah 'deviants' and 'innovators' if they disagree with this modern, unprecedented position.

For those interested in more details, please listen to my latest lecture on the Barzakh, the link of which is provided in the first comment below.

Wa shukran 😀!

[End of Quote]


Imam al Nawawi(ra) said about Shafie’s accepting that the reward of reciting Quran reaches the deceased
واختلف العلماء في وصول ثواب قراءة القرآن، فالمشهور من مذهب الشافعي
وجماعة، أنه لا يَصل.
وذهب أحمدُ بن حنبل وجماعةٌ من العلماء، وجماعة من أصحاب الشافعي، إلى أنه يصل، فالاختيار أن يقول القارئ بعد فراغه: اللهمّ أوصلْ ثوابَ ما قرأته إلى فلان، والله أعلم.
ويُستحبّ الثناء على الميت وذكر محاسنه.
(Kitabul ul Adhkar,165)


Kitab ul Adhkar , Chapter:
کتاب اذکار المرض والموت وما یتعلق بھما
باب ما يقوله بعد الدفن

Dar al Minhaj, Beirut, Lebanon,Edition.


Proof from Salaf as Saliheen to recite Qur'an on graves which Wahabis call Bidah.
Ibn Qayyim said in his Kitab ar Ruh:

وقد ذكر عن جماعة من السلف أنهم أوصوا أن يقرأ عند قبورهم وقت الدفن قال عبد الحق يروى أن عبد الله بن عمر أمر أن يقرأ عند قبره سورة البقرة وممن رأى ذلك المعلى بن عبد الرحمن وكان الامام أحمد ينكر ذلك أولا حيث لم يبلغه فيه أثر ثم رجع عن ذلك وقال الخلال في الجامع كتاب القراءة عند القبور اخبرنا العباس بن محمد الدورى حدثنا يحيى بن معين حدثنا مبشر الحلبى حدثني عبد الرحمن بن العلاء بن اللجلاج عن أبيه قال قال أبى إذا أنامت فضعنى في اللحد وقل بسم الله وعلى سنة رسول الله وسن على التراب سنا واقرأ عند رأسى بفاتحة البقرة فإنى سمعت عبد الله بن عمر يقول ذلك
قال عباس الدورى سألت أحمد بن حنبل قلت تحفظ في القراءة على القبر شيئا فقال لا وسألت يحيى ابن معين فحدثنى بهذا الحديث قال الخلال وأخبرني الحسن بن أحمد الوراق حدثنى على بن موسى الحداد وكان صدوقا قال كنت مع أحمد بن حنبل ومحمد بن قدامة الجوهرى في جنازة فلما دفن الميت جلس رجل ضرير يقرأ عند القبر فقال له أحمد يا هذا إن القراءة عند القبر بدعة فلما خرجنا من المقابر قال محمد بن قدامة لأحمد بن حنبل يا أبا عبد الله ما تقول في مبشر الحلبي قال ثقة قال كتبت عنه شيئا قال نعم فأخبرني مبشر عن عبد الرحمن بن العلاء اللجلاج عن أبيه أنه أوصى إذا دفن أن يقرأ عند رأسه بفاتحة البقرة وخاتمتها وقال سمعت ابن عمر يوصي بذلك فقال له أحمد فارجع وقل للرجل يقرأ
وقال الحسن بن الصباح الزعفراني سألت الشافعي عن القراءة عند القبر فقال لا بأس بها

Translation: It is narrated from a group of pious predecessors that they advised to recite (Qur'an) near their graves at time of burying them.

Abdul Haq has narrated that Ibn Umar (RA) ordered (others) to recite Surah al-Baqarah near his grave.

Muala bin Abdur Rahman also holds the same opinion, Imam Ahmad (rah) did not agree to this in the beginning because narration had not reached him then, however later he agreed,

Imam al-Khallal (rah) mentioned in his book "Reciting near graves" from Ala’ bin Lajlaaj (ra) who narrated that his father did Wasiyah that when he is to be buried you should recite
بسم الله وعلى سنة رسول الله and then add dust, after this stand on the side and recite the beginning of Surah al Baqarah, because I heard Ibn Umar (RA) saying this.

Abbas Ad-Dori (rah) narrates that he asked Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal if there is any tradition about reciting (Quran) on the graves? (Imam Ahmed) said No! ...However when Yahya bin Ma'een (rah) was asked he narrated that he along with Imam Ahmad (rah) and Ibn Quduma (rah) took part in a funeral procession. After burial a blind person started to recite (Quran) on the Grave (Qabr)...

Imam Ahmed said: It is Bidah to recite (Quran) near the grave, however when we left the graveyard ibn Qudama (rah) asked Imam Ahmad (rah) what his stance was on Mubashar al Halbi (rah)?
Imam Ahmad said that he is Thiqa. (Ibn Qudama) said: Have you taken his narrations?

Imam Ahmad said Yes, at this Ibn Qudama said: Mubashar narrated from Abdur Rahman bin Ala’ bin Lajlaj (RA) … (and he mentioned the same narration as mentioned above), hearing this Imam Ahmad (rah) asked to call the blind man back for reciting (on the grave) [Subhan Allah, look at our great Imam Ahmad – Rahimuhullah who did not get angry upon learning from his disciple]

Hassan bin Sabah has narrated that Imam Shafi’i(rah) was asked about reciting near the grave, at which he replied: There is no harm in it (i.e. allowed)[Kitab ar Ruh by Ibn Qayyim, Page Nos. 64-67, Published by Dar Ibn Kathir, Damascus] 
Posted by Aamir Ibrahim



(Edited by ADHM)