Tuesday, 14 July 2015

Shifa al Siqaam fi Ziyarat Khayr al Anaam by Imam Taqi al-Din al-Subki (d. 756 AH)



Shifa al Siqaam
 fi Ziyarat Khayr al Anaam


by 
 Shaykh ul Islam 
Imam Taqi ud-din Subki(ra)


written against Ibn Taymiyyah  who gave the absurd fatwa that travelling to visit the blessed grave of Prophet (s) is forbidden Haram! (Bidah/Shirk)

Shaykh ul Islam Imam Taqi al-Din al-Subki (d. 756 AH) in his book Shifa` al-Saqam, wrote against Ibn Taymiyyah's evil and satanic claim.
Imam al-Subki (ra) had destroyed Ibn Taymiyyah's deviant ideology completely!


Download Shifa` al-Saqam PDF: 
Here

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Imam Taqi al-Din al-Subki (d. 756 AH) said in his book:
 Shifa` al-Saqam on p. 357:

اعلم : أنه يَجُوزُ ، وَيَحسنُ التَّوسلُ ، والاستغاثة ، والتَّشفُع بالنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى ربه سبحانه وتعالى ، وَجوازُ ذلك وَحُسنهُ ؛ من الأمور المعلُومةِ لِكُلِّ ذي دين ، المعروفة من فِعلِ الأنبياء والمرسلين ، وسِيَرِ السلف الصالحين ، والعلماء والعوام من المسلمين ، ولم يُنكِر أَحدٌ ذلك من أهل الأديان ، ولا سُمعَ به في زمن من الأزمان ، حتى جاء ابن تيمية ؛ فَتكلَّم في ذلك بكلام يُلَبِّسُ فيه على الضعفاء الأغمار ، وابتدع ما لم يُسبق إليه في سائر الأعصار ، ولهذا طعن في الحكاية التي تَقدّم ذكرها عن مَالكٍ رحم الله تعالى ، فإنَّ فيها قول مَالكٍ رحم الله تعالى للمنصور : « استشفع به » . ونحن قد بَيّنا صِحّتها ، ولذلك أدخلنا الاستغاثة في هذا الكتاب ، لما تَعرَّضَ إليها مع الزيارة ، وحسبُكَ أنَّ إنكار ابن تيمية للاستغاثة والتوسل قَولٌ لم يقله عالمٌ قبله ، وصار به بين أهل الإسلام مُثْلهٌ

"Know, that it is permissable and good to perform Tawassul, Istighathah (seeking aid) and Tashaffu' (seeking intercession) through the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - unto his Lord subhanahu wa ta'ala. The permissibility and desirability of this is from the matters that are well known among all those who have religion, and well known from the actions of the Prophets and Messengers, and the way of the righteous Salaf, the scholars, and the layman among the Muslims.
No one has denied this from the people of religion, nor has anyone heard about [denying] this in any time until Ibn Taymiyyah came: So he spoke regarding this with words that deceive the weak inexperienced ones and he innovated that which no one from the eras before held.

This is the reason why he attacked the story which has been already mentioned from [Imam] Malik - may Allah have mercy upon him - for it contains the statement of [Imam] Malik to al-Mansur: "Seek intercession through him". And we've already made its health/correctness clear.
And this is why we've also mentioned Istighathah in this book, because of the attack against it together with [the attack against] the visiting [of the grave of the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam -] and it should be enough for you [to know] that the denunciation of Ibn Taymiyyah against [performing] Istighathah and Tawassul is a statement that no scholar before him had said and he created dissent among the people of Islam by it."

Then on p. 358:

وأقول : إنَّ التَّوسُل بالنبي صل الله عليه وسلم جَائزٌ في كل حَالٍ ، قبل خَلْقِه ، وبعد خَلْقِهِ ، في مُدَّةِ حياته في الدنيا ، وبعد موته في مُدّة البرزخ ، وبعد البعث في عرصات القيامة والجنة ، وهو على ثلاثة أنواع

"I say: Tawassul through the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - is permissible in every situation, [both] before his creation and after it, in the time of his life in this world, as well as after his death in the period of the Barzakh, and after the resurrection on the day of reckoning and paradise and it's of three types."

Then on the same page:

النوع الأول : أن يتوسَّل به ، بمعنى : أنَّ طالب الحاجة يسألُ الله تعالى به ، أو بجاهه ، أو ببركته ، فيجوز ذلك في الأحوال الثلاثة ، وقد وَرد في كُلٍّ منها خَبرٌ صحيح
"The first type [of Tawassul]: That a person performs Tawassul through him, meaning that the one that seeks the fulfillment of his need asks Allah ta'ala by him or by his rank or his blessings. This is permissible in all three situations and regarding all of them there are authentic reports."
On p. 372:
النوع الثاني : التوسل به ، بمعنى طلب الدعاء منه ، وذلك في أحوال
"The second type [of Tawassul]: Performing Tawassul throuh him, meaning that one asks him (the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) for supplication (Du'a`) and it's in the [following] situations."

On p. 378:

فإن قال المُخَالف : أنا لا أمنع التوسل والتشفع لما قَدَّمتُم من الآثار والأدلة ، وإنما أمنع إطلاق التَّجوُهِ والاستغاثة ، لأنَّ فيهما إيهام أنَّ المُتَجوَّهَ به ، والمُستغاثَ به ؛ أعلى من المُتجَّوهِ عليه والمُستغاثِ عليه . قُلْنَا : هذا لا يَعتقده مُسلمٌ ، ولا يدل لفظ التَّجَوهُ والاستغاثة عليه ، فإنَّ التَّجُوهَ من الجَاهِ والوجَاهةِ ، ومعناه : علو القدر والمنزلة ، وقد يُتوسّل بذي الجاه إلى من هو أعلى جاهاً منه ، والاستغاثة طلب الغوث . فالمستغيث يطلب من المستغاث به أن يحصل له الغوث من غيره ، وإن كان أعلى منه ، فالتوسل والتَّشفعُ والتَّجوُه والاستغاثة بالنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وسائر الأنبياء والصالحين ؛ ليس لها معنى في قلوب المسلمين غير ذلك ، ولا يقصدُ بها أحدٌ منهم سواه . فمن لم ينشرح صدره لذلك ؛ فَليبك على نفسه ، نسأل العافية
"Now if the opponent says: I'm not disallowing Tawassul and Tashaffu' (seeking intercession) because of the reports and proofs that you've mentioned, but rather I disallow the usage of Tajawwuh and Istighathah, because they create the impression that the one by whom aid is sought is higher than the One whose aid is sought [in reality].
We say [to him]: No Muslim believes this nor does the expression of Tajawwuh and Istighathah indicate this. That is because Tajawwuh comes from [the word] Jah and Wajahah and its meaning is high worth and status. Tawassul could be sought from a possessor of rank (Jah) unto one who possesses a higher rank than him. Istighathah is seeking aid, and the one who is seeking aid is asking from one by whom aid is sought in order to obtain aid from other than him, even if that other is greater than him. So Tawassul, Tashaffu', Tajawwuh and Istighathah with the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - and the rest of the Prophets (Anbiya`) and righteous people (Salihin) has no meaning in the heart of the Muslims other than this and no one from them intends by [performing] these other than this [meaning].
So whoever’s breast is not opened with this, then let him cry over himself. We ask Allah for well-being."

On p. 379:

والمُستَغاثُ به في الحقيقة : هو الله تعالى ، والنَّبيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَاسطةٌ بينه وبين المستغيث
"The One whose aid is sought in reality is Allah ta'ala, and the Prophet is an intermediary (Wasitah) between Him and the one seeking aid."

On p. 381-382:

عن مالك الدار قال : أصاب الناس قحطٌ في زمان عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه ، فجاء رجل إلى قبر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال : يا رسول الله ، استسق لأمتك ، فإنهم قد هلكوا . فأتاه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في المنام فقال : « إئت عمر ، فاقرأه السلام ، وأخبره أنهم مسقون ، وقل له : عليك الكَيْسَ الكَيْس » . فأتى الرجل عمر فأخبره ، فبكى عمر رضي الله عنه ثم قال : يا رب ، ما آلو إلَّا ما عجزتُ عنه .
وَمحل الاستشهاد من هذا الأثر : طَلبهُ الاستسقاء من النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بعد موته في مدة البرزخ ، ولا مانع من ذلك ، فإنَّ دعاء النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لربه تعالى في هذه الحالة غير مُمتنعٍ ، وقد وردت الأخبار على ما ذكرنا ، ونَذكُر طَرفاً منه ، وَعِلمُهُ صلى الله عليه وسلم بسؤال من يَسألُه ؛ ورد أيضاً . ومع هذين الأمرين ؛ فلا مانع من أن يُسألَ النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم الاستسقاء كما كان يسأل في الدنيا
"It is reported from Malik al-Dar that he said: "The people suffered a drought during the successorship of 'Umar bin al-Khattab - radhiallahu 'anhu -, whereupon a man came to the grave of the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - and said: "O Messenger of Allah, ask [Allah] for rain for your community (Ummah), for verily they have but perished," after which the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - appeared to him in a dream and told him: "Go to 'Umar and give him my greeting, then tell him that they will be watered. And say to him: You must be clever, you must be clever!"
So the man came to 'Umar and informed him, after which 'Umar cried and then said: "O my Lord, I spare no effort except in what escapes my power!""

And the point in mentioning this narration as a proof is: His asking for supplication for rain (Istisqa`) from the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - after his death in the period of the Barzakh.

There is nothing wrong with [doing] this, because the supplication (Du'a`) of the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - to his Lord, may He be Exalted, in this situation is not impossible - and narrations have been reported regarding that which we've mentioned [here] and we mention a part of it - and his knowledge - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - regarding the question of the one asking him has also been reported.

With these two matters [being established], then there is nothing wrong with asking the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - to supplicate for rain just as he was asked [for this in his lifetime] in this world (Dunya)."

On p. 382-383:

النوع الثالث من التوسل : ان يُطلبَ منه ذلك الأمر المقصود ، بمعنى أنه صلى الله عليه وسلم قادرٌ على التَّسبُّب فيه ؛ بسؤاله ربه وشفاعته إليه ، فيعود إلى « النوع الثاني » في المعنى ، وإن كانت العبارة مختلفة ، ومن هذا قول القائل للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم : أسألك مُرافقتكَ في الجنة ، قال : « أَعِنِّي على نفسك بكثرة السجود » . والآثار في ذلك كثيرة أيضاً ، ولا يَقصدُ الناس بسؤالهم ذلك إلَّا كون النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم سبباً وشافعاً ، وكذلك جَوابُ النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وإن ورد على حسب السؤال ، كما رُوِّينا في « دلائل النبوة » للبيهقي ، بالإسناد إلى عثمان بن أبي العاص رضي الله عنه قال : شكوتُ إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم سُوء حفظي للقرآن ، فقال : « شيطان يقال له خِنْزَب ، أُدْنُ مني يا عثمان » ، ثم وضع يده على صدري ، فوجدت بردها بين كتفي ، وقال : « اخرج يا شيطان من صدر عثمان » . قال : فما سمعت بعد ذلك شيئاً إلَّا حفظته . فانظر أمر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بالخروج للشيطان ، للعلم بأنَّ ذلك بإذن الله تعالى وخَلْقه وتيسيره ، وليس المراد نِسبَةَ النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى الخَلقِ والاستقلال بالأفعال ؛ هذا لا يَقصِدهُ مُسلم . فَصرفُ الكلام إليه ومنعه من باب التلبيس في الدِّين ، والتشويش على عوام الموحدين

"The third type of Tawassul: That one requests the wanted thing from him (the Prophet), with the meaning that he - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - is able to be an intermediary mean in this by asking his Lord and by his intercession unto Him. So it goes back to the second type [of Tawassul] (and that is to ask for supplication) in meaning, even if the expression [used] is different.
And from this is the statement of the one who said to the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - (as reported in "Sahih Muslim"): "I ask you for your companionship in paradise". He responded: "Then help me to achieve this for you by devoting yourself often to prostration".

There are also many reports regarding this and the people do not intend by their asking this except the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - to be an intermediary mean (Sabab) and intercessor (Shafi') [in attaining the requested matter].

Likewise the response of the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - even if it was reported in the manner of a request, as we have been reported in "Dala`il al-Nubuwwah" by [Imam] al-Bayhaqi with a chain of transmission (Isnad) going back to 'Uthman bin Abi al-'As - radhiallahu 'anhu - [in which] he said: "I complained to the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - regarding my weakness in memorizing the Qur`an, so he said [to me]: "A devil who is called Khinzab [is responsible for this], come closer to me o 'Uthman". Then he put his hand on my chest, so that I felt its coldness between my shoulder blades and he said: "Get out, o devil, of the chest of 'Uthman"". He ('Uthman) said: "I did not hear after this anything except that I memorized it."

So look at the command of the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - to the devil to get out, with the knowledge that this is [only possible] with the permission of Allah ta'ala and with Him creating and facilitating it. The intent isn't to ascribe the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - [the ability of] creating (Khalq) and independence in actions (Istiqlal bil Af'al). No Muslim intends such a thing.
So taking the words to this [meaning] and disallowing it [based upon this] is from the deception regarding the religion and from the causing of confusion for the monotheist laymen.
"

On p. 383:

وإذا قد تحررت هذا الأنواع والأحوال في الطالب من النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ، وظهر المعنى ؛ فلا عليك في تسميته : تَوَسُّلاً ، أو تَشفُّعاً ، أو استغاثةً ، أو تَجوُّهاً ، أو تَوخٌُهاً ؛ لأنَّ المعنى في جميع ذلك سواء
"If these [three] types [of Tawassul] and the [different] situations regarding the one who asks the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - [for aid] has become clear and the meaning has become apparent, then it should not concern you how one calls it: whether it's Tawassul, Tashaffu', Istighathah, Tajawwuh or Tawajjuh, because the [intended] meaning of all of these [different wordings used] is the same."

On p. 385:

فالله تعالى مُستَغاثٌ ، والغوث منه خلقاً وإيجاداً ، والنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم مُستَغاث والغوث منه تسبباً وكسباً
"So Allah ta'ala is the one whose aid is sought and aid comes Him from by the way of creating and bringing forth. And the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - is one whose aid is sought and aid comes from him by the way of being an intermediary mean and [by the way] of acquisition."

And then on the same page:

فقد ظهر جواز إطلاق الاستغاثة والتوسل جميعاً ، وهذا أمر لا يُشَكّ فيه ، فإنَّ الاستغاثة في اللغة : طلب الغوث ، وهذا جائز لغة وشرعاً من كُلّ من يقدر عليه بأي لفظ عُبِّر عنه ، كما قالت أم إسماعيل : « أغث إن كان عندك غواث
"So the permissibility of using both Istighathah and Tawassul has become clear and this is a matter which can not be doubted, because Istighathah means seeking aid in the language and this is permissable in the language and in the Shari'ah from whomever is able to do it and by whatever phrase one expresses it, just like when the mother of Isma'il (peace be upon them) said:
 "Help us if you can offer any help.""
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 Imam al-Jazari (d. 711 AH) is among the teachers of Imam al-Subki (d. 756 AH) and both of them refuted Ibn Taymiyyah's (d. 728 AH) claim that seeking aid with the our noble Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - is forbidden...


The refutation of Imam Shams al-Din al-Jazari (d. 711 AH) against Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728 AH) regarding Istighathah (read the second objection and how he later responds to it):

Imam Najm al-Din al-Tufi al-Hanbali (d. 716 AH) mentioned what Imam al-Jazari said and added some comments to it:

فاستغاثه الذي من شيعته على الذي من عدوه) [القصص :15] احتج بها الشيخ شمس الدين الجزري شارح المنهاج في أصول الفقه على الشيخ تقي الدين ابن تيمية فيما قيل عنه أنه قال : لا يستغاث برسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لأن الاستغاثة بالله عز وجل من خصائصه وحقوقه الخاصة به فلا تكون لغيره كالعبادة.
وتقرير الحجة المذكورة : أنه قال : يجب أن ينظر في حقيقة الاستغاثة ماهي وهي الاستنصار والاستصراخ ثم قد وجدنا هذا الإسرائيلي استغاث بموسى واستنصره واستصرخه بنص هذه الآيات وهي استغاثة مخلوق بمخلوق وقد أقر موسى عليها الإسرائيلي وقد أقر الله عز وجل موسى على ذلك ولم ينكر محمدا صلى الله عليه وسلم ذلك لمانزلت هذه الآيات أي فكان هذا إقرارا من الله عز وجل ورسوله على استغاثة المخلوق بالمخلوق وإذا جاز أن يستغاث بموسى فبمحمد صلى الله عليه وسلم أولى لأنه أفضل بإجماع.
ومما يحتج به على ذلك : حديث هاجر أم إسماعيل حيث التمست الماء لابنها فلم تجد فسمعت حسا في بطن الوادي فقالت : قد أسمعت إن كان عندك غواث وهذا في معنى الاستغاثة منها بجبريل وقد أقرها على ذلك ولم ينكره النبي -صلى الله عليه وسلم- عليها لما حكاه عنها.
ولأن اعتقاد التوحيد من لوازم الإسلام فإذا رأينا مسلما يستغيث بمخلوق علمنا قطعا أنه غير مشرك لذلك المخلوق مع الله عز وجل وإنما ذلك منه طلب مساعدة أو توجه إلى الله ببركة ذلك المخلوق وإذا استصرخ الناس في موقف القيامة بالأنبياء ليشفعوا لهم في التخفيف عنهم جاز استصراخهم بهم في غير ذلك المقام وقد صنف الشيخ أبو عبدالله النعمان كتبا سماه : (مصباح الظلام في المستغيثين بخير الأنام) واشتهر هذا الكتاب وأجمع أهل عصره على تلقيه منه بالقبول وإجماع أهل كل عصر حجة فالمنكر لذلك مخالف لهذا الإجماع فإن قيل : الآية المذكورة في قصة موسى والإسرائيلي ليست في محل النزاع من وجهين :
أحدهما : أن موسى حينئذ كان حيا ونحن إنما نمنع الاستغاثة بميت.
الثاني: أن استغاثة صاحب موسى به كان في أمر يمكن موسى فعله وهو إعانته على خصمه وهو أمر معتاد ونحن إنما نمنع من الاستغاثة بالمخلوق فيما يختص فعله بالله عز وجل كالرحمة والمغفرة والرزق والحياة ونحو ذلك فلا يقال : يامحمد اغفر لي أو ارحمني أو ارزقني أو أجبني [وفي نسخة أخرى :أحييني بدل أجبني] أو أعطني مالا وولدا لأن ذلك شرك بإجماع.

وأجيب عن الأول : بأن الاستغاثة إذا جازت بالحي فبالميت المساوي فضلا عن الأفضل أولى لأنه أقرب إلى الله عز وجل من الحي لوجوه :
أحدها: أنه في دار الكرامة والجزاء والحي في دار التكليف.
الثاني: أن الميت تجرد عن عالم الطبيعة القاطعة عن الوصول إلى عالم الآخرة والحي متلبس بها.
الثالث: أن الشهداء في حياتهم محجوبون وبعد موتهم أحياء عند ربهم يرزقون.

وعن الثاني: أن ماذكرتموه أمر مجمع مجمع عليه معلوم عند صغير المسلمين فضلا عن كبيرهم أن المخلوق على الإطلاق لايطلب منه ولا ينسب إليه فعل ما اختصت القدرة الإلهية به وقد رأينا أغمار الناس وعامتهم وأبعدهم عن العلم والمعرفة يلوذون بحجرة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ولا يزيدون على أن يسألو الشفاعة والوسلية يارسول الله [وفي نسخة أخرى : برسول الله] اشفع لنا يالله ببركة نبيك اغفر لنا فصار الكلام في المسألة المفروضة فضلا لا حاجة بأحد من المسلمين إليه.
وإذا لم يكن بد من التعريف بهذا الحكم خشية أن يقع فيه أحد فليكن بعبارة لا توهم نقصا في النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ولا غضا من منصبه مثل أن يقال: ما استأثر الله عز وجل بالقدرة عليه فلا يطلب من مخلوق على الإطلاق أو نحو هذا ولا يتعرض للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بسلب الاستغاثة عنه مطلقا ولا مقيدا ولا يذكر إلا بالصلاة والسلام عليه والرواية عنه ونحو ذلك.
هذا حاصل ماوقع في هذه المسألة سؤالا وجوابا ذكرته بمعناه وزيادات من عندي

"'So the one of his own caste seeked assistance against the one who was of his enemies' [quoting the verse from chapter al-Qasas, aya 15 of the Qur'an];

The Shaykh Shams ud-Deen alJazari,
the commentator of the Minhaj in Usul alFiqh (the science of foundation of Legal Jurisprudence) used it [i.e. this verse] as evidence against Shaykh Taqi udDeen Ibn Taymiyyah and his reported statement "The assistance of the Messenger of Allah, May Allah send his peace and blessings upon him, is not sought as seeking assistance of Allah, the Exalted and Mighty, is from His specific characteristics and rights so it is not for other than Him just like (acts of) worship.' "

The aforementioned refutation is as follows:

He said, "It is necessary that one considers the true nature of seeking assistance.
What is it and what is meant by seeking help and calling for help?

We find this man from the tribe of Israel sought the assistance of Musa [may the peace and blessings be upon him and the Seal of Prophets], and sought and called for his help as is explicitly stated in the text of this verse. This is the seeking assistance of a created being from another created being and Musa affirmed the man from the tribe of Israel in it and Allah, the exalted and Mighty affirmed Musa doing so. Furthermore Muhammad, May Allah send His peace and blessing upon him, did not find fault in it when these verses were revealed. In other words, this was affirmation from Allah, the Exalted and Mighty, and His Messenger for the seeking assistance of one created being from another created being and as seeking the assistance of Musa is permissible then it even more so of Muhammad as he is by consensus superior.

He also uses as evidence the narration of Hajar, the mother of Ismail, when she sought water for her son and did not find it. She heard a sound at the bottom of the valley and said, "[Oh whoever you may be,] you have made me hear your voice, [help us] if you can offer any help." This statement conveys the meaning of her seeking the assistance of (the angel) Jibreel and the Prophet, May God send his peace and blessings upon him, affirmed her in this and did not disapprove of her.

Certainty in the oneness of God is one of the conditions of Islam. So when we find a Muslim seeking the assistance of a created being we know, without doubt, that he is not associating that created being with God, the Exalted and Mighty. Such an action is only his seeking help or turning to Allah by the blessing of that created being. People at the station of reckoning (on the Day of Judgement) will call for the help of the prophets seeking their intercession in bringing ease for themselves, hence it is permissable to call upon the prophets in other situations. Shaykh Abu Abdillah anNu'maan has written a book that he titled, "The lamp in darkness of those seeking assistance by the best of mankind." This book has become famous and the people of his time have agreed upon this book in consensus. The consensus of the people of every age is considered a proof such that the one who disapproves is considered to be acting against the consensus.

If it is said that the aforementioned verse is regarding the story of Musa and the man from the tribe of Israel and it is not relevant to the point in contention for two main objections.

The first being that Musa was alive at that time and we only decline to accept the seeking assistance of a dead being.

The second is that the companion of Musa sought his assistance in a matter that Musa was able to undertake and that was his help with an opponent and that is a natural matter. Yet we only contend with the seeking assistance of a created being in matters that are specific to God, the Exalted and Majestic, such as divine mercy, forgiveness, sustenance, giving life and so on. So one must not say, "Oh Muhammad forgive me or have mercy upon me or sustain me or answer me (and in another manuscript of the same text 'give me life' was mentioned) or give me money and a child" as all of that is associating a partner to God by consensus.

A response to the first objection is that if seeking of assistance of the living is allowed then so should it be allowed for the dead, if not even more so, as he they are closer than the living to God, the Exalted and Mighty for many reasons.
The first of which is that he is in the abode of Generosity and Recompense and the living is in the abode of legal responsibility.
The second is that the dead person, unlike the living, has broken free from the natural world that cuts of from reaching the other world.
The third reason is that the martyrs in their lives are veiled and after their death are alive with their Lord being sustained (alluding to Surah 2 V 154).

In response to the second objection it can be said that what you have mentioned is an agreed upon matter known to the youngest of Muslim let alone the eldest, i.e. that with regards to Divine Omnipotence another created being is not to be sought under any circumstance and that neither should be attributed to it. We have seen rabbles of people and their common-folk and the furthest of them from knowledge and divine certainty (gnosis) seeking refuge at the room of the Prophet (i.e. his resting place), may God send his peace and blessings upon him, and they do not go beyond asking for intercession and his being a medium, "Oh Prophet, intercede on behalf of us. Oh God, by the blessing of your Prophet, forgive us." Hence such discussion about the matter becomes presumptuous and no one from amongst the Muslims is in need of it. If it is inevitable that by announcing this ruling it is feared that someone may fall into it then putting it another way do not delude yourself in finding fault in the Prophet, May God's peace and blessings be upon him, or defect in his rank such as saying that which God has taken upon himself by Divine ability should not be sought from a created being at all and do not oppose the Prophet by stripping seeking assistance from Him unrestrictedly or restrictedly and do not mention him except by sending peace and blessings upon him and narrating from and so forth.

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Sayyid and Shaykh 'Abd al-Rahman bin Muhammad al-Mashhur (d. 1320 AH) under the chapter "al-Tawassul bi Ahl al-Fadhl wal Radd 'ala Ahl al-Bida'..." (he also qoutes the Shaykh Muhammad bin Sulayman al-Kurdi (d. 1194 AH) towards the end):

التوسل بالأنبياء والأولياء في حياتهم وبعد وفاتهم مباح شرعاً، كما وردت به السنة الصحيحة، كحديث آدم عليه السلام حين عصى، وحديث من اشتكى عينيه، وأحاديث الشفاعة، والذي تلقيناه عن مشايخنا وهم عن مشايخهم وهلم جرا، أن ذلك جائز ثابت في أقطار البلاد وكفى بهم أسوة، وهم الناقلون لنا الشريعة، وما عرفنا إلا بتعليمهم لنا، فلو قدّرنا أن المتقدمين كفروا كما يزعمه هؤلاء الأغبياء لبطلت الشريعة المحمدية، وقول الشخص المؤمن يا فلان عند وقوعه في شدة داخل في التوسل بالمدعوّ إلى الله تعالى وصرف النداء إليه مجاز لا حقيقة، والمعنى يا فلان أتوسل بك إلى ربي أن يقيل عثرتي أو يردّ غائبي مثلاً، فالمسؤول في الحقيقة هو الله تعالى، وإنما أطلق الاستعانة بالنبي أو الولي مجازاً، والعلاقة بينهما أن قصد الشخص التوسل بنحو النبي صار كالسبب، وإطلاقه على المسبب جائز شرعاً وعرفاً وارد في القرآن والسنة، كما هو مقرّر في علم المعاني والبيان، نعم ينبغي تنبيه العوام على ألفاظ تصدر منهم تدل على القدح في توحيدهم، فيجب إرشادهم وإعلامهم بأن لا نافع ولا ضارّ إلا الله تعالى، لا يملك غيره لنفسه ضرّاً ولا نفعاً إلا بإرادة الله تعالى، قال تعالى لنبيه عليه الصلاة والسلام: {قل إني لا أملك لكم ضرّاً ولا رشداً} اهـ. قلت: وقال بعض المحققين: ولا يظهر لي أن حكمة توسل عمر بالعباس رضي الله عنهما دون النبي هي مشروعية جواز التوسل بغيره عليه السلام، وذلك لأن التوسل به أمر معلوم محقق عندهم، فلو توسل بالنبي عليه السلام لأخذ منه عدم جواز التوسل بغيره لله تعالى. وعبارة الكردي: وأما التوسل بالأنبياء والصالحين فهو أمر محبوب ثابت في الأحاديث الصحيحة وقد أطبقوا على طلبه، بل ثبت التوسل بالأعمال الصالحة وهي أعراض فبالذوات أولى، أما جعل الوسائط بين العبد وبين ربه، فإن كان يدعوهم كما يدعو الله تعالى في الأمور ويعتقد تأثيرهم في شيء من دون الله فهو كفر، وإن كان مراده التوسل بهم إلى الله تعالى في قضاء مهماته مع اعتقاده أن الله هو النافع الضارّ المؤثر في الأمور فالظاهر عدم كفره وإن كان فعله قبيحاً

Source: Bughyat al-Mustarshidin

Posted by Abu Sulayman (IA Forum)


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Shaykh al-Islam ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani (d. 852AH) on ibn Taymiyya’s prohibiting of travelling to visit the Prophet’s grave (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam):
“Al-Kirmani (d. 786AH) has said: On this issue there has been much discussion in our Syrian lands, and many treatises have been written by both parties. I say: He is referring to Shaykh Taqi al-Din al-Subki and others’ responses to Shaykh Taqi al-Din ibn Taymiyya… and the crux of the matter is that they have pointed out that his position implies that it is prohibited to travel to visit the tomb of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam)… This is one of the ugliest positions that has been reported of ibn Taymiyya. One of the things he has adduced to deny the claim that there is a consensus on the matter is the report that (Imam) Malik disliked people saying: I have visited the tomb of the Prophet. The discerning scholars of the (Maliki) school have replied that he disliked the phrase out of politeness, and not the visiting itself, for it is one of the best actions and the noblest of pious deeds with which one draws near to Allah the Majestic, and it’s legitimacy is a matter of consensus without any doubt, and Allah is the One who leads to truth.”
[ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani, Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari (Cairo: Mustafa al-Babi al-Halabi, 1959), 3:308]
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Imam Ibn Abideen writes; ‘Imam Subki (ra) has written that it is permissible to make waseelah of the Prophet(s) to Allah and there was no one amongst the predecessors who rejected this belief until Ibn Taymiyyah. So he has started such a bid’ah that no scholar before him has done or said. (Raddul Muhtar, volume 5 ,page 350 and Taskeen us Sudoor page 399)

Imam Subki writes; “Suffice to say that (the view) of rejection held by Ibn Taymiyyah , has never been mentioned by other Muslim scholars prior to him ” (Shifaus siqaam page 120 as in Taskeen us Sudoor page 399) Imam Aaloosi Bhagdadi  the author of Tafseer Ruhul Ma’ani has written the same thing in his tafseer (volume 6, page 126).

Imam Subki to be harsh and due to prejudices against Ibn Taymiyyah but Allamah Abdul Hay Lakhnawi who has written that, “The rejection by  Subki was not due to prejudices, rather he is correct in his statements which have been accepted and given as evidence by great scholars” (At ta’leeqats Sunniyyah page 196 as Taskeen us Sudoor page 400)

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Imam Shaukani has claimed Ijma’ of the Sahabah to do tawassul of the Prophet as well as other pious people. (Tuhfatuz Zakireen, page 37)
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Imam Taajuddeen al-Subki (ra)  has mentioned that the people would go to the grave of Imaam ibn Foorak (ra), the teacher of Imaam Bayhaqi (ra) and make Du'aa and their Du'aas would get accepted.
Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal (ra) has also encouraged making Tawassul through Rasulullah [sallallahu alayhi wasallam] in ones duas. (Fataawa ibn Taimiyyah vol.1 pg.140, Also see Mafaaheem pg.137)
Haafiz Shamsud-Deen Al-Sakhawi (ra), the grand student of Haafiz ibn Hajr Al-Asqalaani(ra) made Tawassul on many occasions through Rasulullah [Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam] in his books, see for example Al-Tuhfatul-Lateefah vol.1 pg.3, 17; al-Ibtihaaj bi azkaaril musaafiril haaj
Imam Muhammad ibn-ul-Jazri (ra) the famous Muhaddith and Master of Qira'aat has mentioned that from amongst the Aadaab etiquettes of dua is that one makes Tawassul with the Ambiyaa and the pious ones.(Al-Hisnul Haseen)
Imaam Al-Shawkaani Al-Salafi (ra) has also permitted Tawassul. (Tuhfatu-Zaakireen pg.50)

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Imam Ahmad and Tawassul:
:( المرداوي في الإنصاف ( 2:456 "... يجوز التوسل بالرجل الصالح على الصحيح من المذهب، وقيل: يُستحب. قال الإمام أحمد للمروذي : يتوسل بالنبي صلى اله عليه وسلم في دعائه وجزم به في المستوعب وغيره.."
Al-Mardawi said: "The correct position of the [Hanbali] madhhab is that it is permissible in one's du'a to use as one's means a pious person (saalih), and it is said that it is desirable (mustahabb). Imam Ahmad said to Abu Bakr al-Marwazi: 'Let him use the Prophet as a means in his supplication to Allah.'" (Al-Insaf 2:456) This is also cited by Ibn Taymiyyah in Majmu' Al-Fatawa (1:140).
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Imam Shawkani and Tawassul:
قال الشوكاني في تحفة الذاكرين: "وفي الحديث دليل على جواز التوسل برسول الله صلى اله عليه وسلم إلى الله عز وجل مع اعتقاد أن الفاعل هو الله سبحانه وتعالى، وأنه المعطي والمانع ما شاء .(10/ كان وما لم يشأ لم يكن" (تحفة الأحوذي 34
Al-Shawkani said, in Tuhfatul Dhakireen:
"And in this hadith is proof for the permissibility of tawassul through the Prophet [s] to Allah, with the conviction that the [actual] doer is Allah, and that He is the Giver and the Withholder. What He wills is, and what He does not will, will never be."
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Al-Albani on Imam Hanbal and Imam Al-Shawkani:
:( الألباني في "التوسل أنواعه وأحكامه" ( 38 "...مع أنه قد قال ببعضه بعض الأئمة، فأجاز الإمام أحمد التوسل بالرسول وحده فقط، وأجاز غيره كالإمام الشوكاني التوسل به وبغيره من الأنبياء والصالحي
Al-Albani in 'Al-Tawassul': "Even though some of them have been allowed by some of the Imams, so for instance Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal allowed tawassul through the Prophet alone, and others such as Imam Al-Shawkani allowed tawassul through his [pbuh] and through others from the Prophets and the righteous."
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Albani said..."Imaam Ahmad allowed tawassul by means of the Messenger alone, and others such as Imaam ash-Shawkaanee allowed tawassul by means of him and other Prophets and the Pious. However we as is the case in all matters where there is disagreement, follow whatever is supported by the proof whatever that is, without blindly sticking to the opinions of men."
(al-Albani, At-Tawassul, p. 38)
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Albani writes the views of the scholars after a long discussion on waseelah; “Imam Ahmed claims it permissible to do tawassul through the Prophet only while others such as Imam Shaukani claim its permissibility to do tawassul through other Prophets and pious people.” (Commentary on Aqqedatut Tahawi, p. 46)
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Albani said in his work ‘as-silsilah ad-Da’if wal Mawdu’ah, “Imam Ahmed considered the hadith of Ibn Abbas to be strong, which al-Hafidh considered good, because he (Imam Ahmed) practiced it, and his son, Abdullah, said regarding the narration as ‘al-Hadith’.
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Imam ibn Nasir al-Din al-Dimashqi (d.846AH) where he declares anyone who rejects the Hadiths in relation to the reward and virtue of visiting the grave of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) a deviant. It is well known that ibn Taymiyya is the foremost proponent of the view that travelling out to visit the blessed grave of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is a reprehensible innovation – a view which he based on the rejection of the aforementioned narrations. Imam ibn Nasir al-Din al-Dimashqi mentions:
“Visiting the grave of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) is a Sunnah of the Muslims, it is unanimously accepted as an act of reward and it is an act of virtue that is encouraged. The Hadiths on this topic have been accepted and practised upon, even though a few of these Hadiths have weakness. Only a deviant will reject them totally.” (Jami’ al-Athar, vol.8 pg.141)
Imam ibn Nasir al-Din al-Dimashqi has written extensively on this and has approved several Hadiths on this issue in the book of his which has been quoted from above (Jami’ al-Athar) – see vol.8 pgs. 129-141.

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Imam Nawawi on Tawassul:
النووي في المجموع شرح المهذب (كتاب الحج): ثم يرجع إلى موقفه الأول قبالة وجه رسول الله صلى اله عليه وسلم ويتوسل به في حق نفسه، ويستشفع به إلى ربه سبحانه وتعالى
[The pilgrim] should then face the shrine of the Messenger of Allah (s) , make him an intermediary [to Allah], and intercede through him to Allah... (Majmu' Sharh Al-Madhhab – Kitab Al-Hajj)
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When a person leaves the Musjid, the following du’aa is recorded, ‘Allaahumma inniy as-aluka bi haqqis-saa-ileena alayka, wa bi haqqi mamshaaya haaza…’. (Translation: Oh Allah, I ask you through the right of those who ask you and through the right of the act of my walking…)
In this narration, Tawassul through people is established, ‘…through the right of those who ask’ and Tawassul through one’s deeds is supported by the second part. This Hadith is recorded in Sunan ibn Maajah, Musnad Ahmad (vol.3 pg.21), Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah and others.

The following Muhadditheen have regarded it as authentic:
1-Imaam ibn Khuzaymah (Kitaab Tawheed pg.17),
2-Hafiz Abdul-Ghani al-Maqdisi (al-Naseehah),
3-Hafiz Abul-Hasan al-Maqdisi – teacher of Allaamah Munzhiri (refer al-Targheeb vol.3 pg.273),
4-Allamah al-Iraqi – Ustaadh of Hafiz ibn Hajar (Takhrijul Ihyaa),
5-Hafiz ibn Hajar al-Asqalaani (Nataa-ijul Afkaar vol.1 pg.272),
6-Hafiz Dimyati (Al-Matjarur-raabih).
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Ibn Khuzaymah (d.311AH) and Tawassul : ( 7/ ابن حجر في تهذيب التهذيب ( 339
قال (الحاكم النيسابوري) وسمعت أبا بكر محمد بن المؤمل بن الحسن
بن عيسى يقول خرجنا مع امام أهل الحديث أبي بكر بن خزيمة وعديله
أبي علي الثقفي مع جماعة من مشائخنا وهم إذ ذاك متوافرون إلى زيارة
قبر علي بن موسى الرضى بطوس قال فرأيت من تعظيمه يعنى ابن خزيمة
لتلك البقعة وتواضعه لها وتضرعه عندها ما تحيرنا.
Ibn Hajar (Tahdhib 7:339) narrates the account of the Imam of Ahlul-Hadith Ibn Khuzaymah, under the entry of the same Ali bin Musa Al-Ridha. He relates that Ibn Khuzaymah also performed tawassul at the grave of Al-Ridha.
Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn al-Mo'amal bin al-Hasan bin Esa said: We accompanied Imam of Ahlul Hadeeth Abi Bakr ibn Khuzaima, Abi Ali al-Thaqafi and a group of scholars on a visit to the grave of Ali ibn Musa al- Rida in Toos. I was astonished by the respect shown by Ibn Khuzaima towards it. [Tehzeeb at Tahzeeb 7/339]
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Ibn Hibban (d.354AH) and Tawassul : ( 8/456/ ابن حبان في كتابه الثقات ( 14411
مات على بن موسى الرضا بطوس من شربة سقاه إياها المأمون فمات من
ساعته وذلك في يوم السبت آخر يوم سنة ثلاث ومائتين وقبره بسناباذ
خارج النوقان مشهور يزار بجنب قبر الرشيد، قد زرته مرارا كثيرة وما
حلت بي شدة في وقت مقامى بطوس فزرت قبر على بن موسى الرضا
صلوات الله على جده وعليه ودعوت الله إزالتها عنى إلا أستجيب لي
وزالت عنى تلك الشدة وهذا شيء جربته مرارا فوجدته كذلك أماتنا
الله على محبة المصطفى وأهل بيته صلى الله عليه وعليهم أجمعين.
In his Rijal book Al-Thuqat (8:456:14411), under the entry of Ali bin Musa al-Ridha, Ibn Hibban relates his own account of going to Al-Ridha’s grave, performing tawassul through him and states that whenever “I was afflicted with a problem during my stay in Tus, I would visit the grave of Ali bin Musa (Allah’s blessings be upon his grandfather and him) and ask Allah to relieve me of that problem and it (my dua) would be answered and the problem alleviated. And this is something I did, and found to work, many times …”

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ADHM