Thursday, 22 December 2011

Why do the Sufis ‘Dance’ Al-Raqs-Hadra?




Why do the Sufis ‘Dance’
Al-Raqs-Hadra?




Questions about the Hadra

Question:
I would like to ask you questions on the commonly practised tradition of Hadrah as performed by some of the tariqa's within the branch of sufism. I have also observed that in some tariqa the hadra is performed with certain bodily movement whereas in some it is done whilst in the sitting position.

Is the practice of hadrah in accordance with the sunna?
when did this practise start and who started?
what is the purpose of this practise and what are the benefits? Is this practise widespread through the muslim ummah?
Is this practise approved by well known scholars, if so who are they?
What is the wisdom of performing the hadrah with bodily movement (jumping etc)


Answer:

The correct person to ask about this would be someone versed in a Sufi Tariqa which practices the Hadra. However, since the questions are simple and their answers are for the most part accessible to every traditional Muslim, I will attempt to address them from a Hadra- culture perspective, although my replies may be tinged with elements that are, strictly speaking, extraneous, for which I apologize in advance to those who are more knowledgeable.

Is the practice of hadrah in accordance with the sunna?

Yes, the practice of Hadrah is in accordance with the Sunna according to the authorities who wrote about it through the centuries and they produced proofs which, to any observer of good will, should be sufficient to show that the Hadrah is lawful.

Even the hypersunnistic detractors of the Hadrah are forced to agree that any (physical) movement or (verbal) ejaculation which stems from an (involuntary) emotional state of elation toward Allah Most High is excused even if it contravenes the Law, such as certain utterances made famous, among others, by our liege-lord Abu Yazid al-Bistami, may Allah sanctify his secret.

Ibn Taymiyya wrote about this in lenient terms and adduced the hadith:
"The Pen of the Law is lifted from the sleeper and the person who is not in a normal mental state" (Majmu` al-Fatawa, volume on Tasawwuf).
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Ibn Taymiyya, in his collection of fatwas entitled: Majmu`at al-fatawa al-kubra (2nd Vol, p. 396-397) says the following in reference to the early sufi Abu Yazid al-Bistami (R):

This state of love is the state of many people from among the people of love to Allah and the People of Desire of Allah (Ahl al-irada). When such a person vanishes to himself in the object of his love — that is, Allah — through the intensity of his love, he will recall Allah, not recalling himself, and remember Allah, not remembering himself, and visualize Allah (yastashhid), not visualizing himself, and exist in Allah, not in himself. When he reaches that stage, he no longer feels his own existence. That is why he says in this state: ANA AL-HAQQ (I am the Truth), or subhani (Glory to Me!) and ma fi al-jubba illa Allah (there is nothing in this cloak except Allah), because he is drunk with the love of Allah and this is a pleasure and happiness that he cannot control. From such states the pen of the Law is lifted. [Majmu`at al-fatawa al-kubra,Vol:2, page,396-397 ]
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When did this practise start and who started?

This is essentially a poorly-phrased or poorly-conceived question, since it is designed to mislead at the root, the reason being that, in light of the first question, the issue is not "when" this practice started and "who" started it - which is of secondary, historical interest - but whether its principle is rooted in the Qur'an and the Sunna or not.

Allah Most High said of His sincere remembers: { Then their skins and their hearts soften to the remembrance of Allah } (39:23).

Our liege-lord `Ali,
Allah be well-pleased with him, said:

"I visited the Prophet, Allah bless and greet him, with Ja`far (ibn Abi Talib) and Zayd (ibn Haritha). The Prophet, Allah bless and greet him, said to Zayd: "You are my freedman" (anta mawlay), whereupon Zayd began to hop on one leg around the Prophet (hajala). The Prophet, Allah bless and greet him, then said to Ja`far: "You resemble me in my creation and my manners" (ashbahta khalqi wa- khuluqi), whereupon Ja`far began to hop behind Zayd. The Prophet, Allah bless and greet him, then said to me: "You are part of me and I am part of you" (anta minni wa-ana mink) whereupon I began to hop behind Ja`far."


He also said of the Companions as a whole:

"When Allah Most High was mentioned they swayed the way trees sway on a windy day, then their eyes poured out tears until - by Allah! - they soaked their clothes. By Allah! Folks today are asleep and heedless." Abû Nu`aym, Hilya (1985 1:76, 10:388).

The simile of swaying trees is reminiscent of the Prophetic hadith

 "The one who mentions or remembers Allah among those who forget Him is like a green tree in the midst of dry ones."

So then, both from the perspective of the Sunna and that of historical chronology, it is a practice of the Believers extolled by the Qur'an, practiced by three of the first and foremost of Ahl al- Bayt, observed by the Door of the City of Knowledge as characteristic of the Prophetic Companions, Allah be well-pleased with them.

What is the purpose of this practise and what are the benefits?

To cast out heedlessness and signal the difference between the living (ahl al-akhira) and the dead (ahl al-dunya); to unburden the heart from worldly cares and enliven it with the Dhikr of Allah Most High with the use of the body in the same perspective as Imam al-Hasan al- Basri when he excused himself for using a sibha by saying: "I love to remember Allah Most High with my heart, my tongue, and my hand," even if the most superior dhikr of all is the first (by heart).

Abu Hurayra said that while on the road to Mecca the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, passed on top of a mountain called Jumdan, at which time he said: "Move on, for here is Jumdan which has overtaken the single-minded." They said: "What are the single-minded (mufarridûn)? He said: "The men and women who remember Allah much" (33:35). Muslim related it in his Sahih, beginning of the book of Dhikr.

The version in Tirmidhi has: "It was said: And what are the single- minded? He replied: Those who dote on the remembrance of Allah and are ridiculed because of it, whose burden the dhikr removes from them, so that they come to Allah fluttering!"

Imam al-Nawawi said in his Sharh Sahih Muslim that another narration of the same hadith has: "They are those who shake or are moved at the mention or remembrance of Allah (hum al-ladhina ihtazzu fi dhikrillah)," that is, al-Nawawi comments, "They have become fervently devoted and attached to His remembrance."

Al-Mundhiri said in al-Targhib wa al-tarhib: "The single-minded and those who dote on the dhikr and are ridiculed for it: these are the ones set afire with the remembrance of Allah."

In another explanation of mufarridun cited by Ibn Qayyim in Madarij al-Salikin, the meaning is "those that tremble from reciting dhikrullah, entranced with it perpetually, not caring what people say or do about them."

Is this practice widespread through the muslim ummah?

Most Sufi Tariqas use the Hadra or something similar, and most of the Muslim Ummah follows the teachings of Tasawwuf, so yes, one would have to say that this practice is widespread through the Muslim Umma.

Is this practice approved by well known scholars, if so who are they?

All those who wrote on poetry-audition or sama` addressed the movement of the body during such audition. Such discussions are found in Kitab al-Luma` by Abu Nasr al-Sarraj, Ibn Khafif's `Aqida (section on Tasawwuf), the Ihya `Ulum al-Din, and Imam al-Dhahabi in Siyar A`lam al-Nubala', in his chapter on Sultan al-`Ulama' Ibn `Abd al- Salam mentioned that the latter "attended the sama` and danced in states of ecstasy" (kana yahduru al-sama` wa-yarqusu wa-yatawajad).

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Hajar al-Haytami mentions that some scholars have seen in the hadith of "hajal" (cited above) evidence for the permissibility of dancing (al-raqs) upon hearing a recital (sama`) that lifts the spirit. There is a lot more evidence mentioned by the Ulama.

What is the wisdom of performing the hadrah with bodily movement (jumping etc)

The same wisdom as the words of the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, to the Abyssinians who displayed themselves through certain choreographed movements in the Prophetic Mosque in Madina during `Eid: "Jump, O Banu Arfada!" while our Mother `A'isha was watching with his permission. Muslim narrated it in his Sahih, book of Salat al-`Idayn from `A'isha, Allah be well-pleased with her.

Sayyid Muhammad ibn `Alawi al-Maliki
said in his book on the celebration of the Mawlid titled Hawl al-Ihtifal bi-Dhikri al-Mawlid al-Nabawi al-Sharif ("Regarding the Celebration of the Prophet's Birthday"):

"There is no doubt that such singing, dancing, reciting of poetry, and banging the drum was for joy at being with the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, nor did he condemn or frown upon such displays in any way whatsoever. These are common displays of happiness and lawful merriment. Similarly, to stand up at the mention of the birth of the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, is an ordinary act that shows love and gladness symbolizing the joy of creation."

Imam Habib Mashhur al-Haddad
said in Key to the Garden (p. 116), commenting on the verse already cited, {Then their skins and their hearts soften to the remembrance of Allah} (39:23):

"The 'softening of the heart' consists in the sensitivity and timidity that occur as a result of nearness and tajalli [manifestation of one or more divine attributes]. Sufficient is it to have Allah as one's intimate companion!

"As for the 'softening of the skin' this is the ecstasy and swaying from side to side which result from intimacy and manifestation, or from fear and awe. No blame is attached to someone who has reached this rank if he sways and chants, for in the painful throes of love and passion he finds something which arouses the highest yearning....

"The exhortation provided by fear and awe brings forth tears and forces one to tremble and be humble. These are the states of the righteous believers (abrar) when they hear the Speech and dhikr of Allah the Exalted. {Their skins shiver} (39:23), and then soften with their hearts and incline to dhikr of Him, as they are covered in serenity and dignity, so that they are neither frivolous, pretentious, noisy, or ostentatious. Allah the Exalted has not described them as people whose sense of reason has departed, who faint, dance, or jump about."

This is in short a basic documentation of the proofs of the Hadra.
May Allah Most High cause us to leave and die on the path of active followership and living Dhikr of Him, not as naggers of innovation, laziness, and heedlessness.

Shaykh Hajj G F Haddad

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The Sufi Hadra - Raqs (Dance) 
in light of Shariah


Watch ^Video: Here



There has been some controversy lurking around regarding legitimacy of the Sufi Raqs (dance) or Hadra as it is called in Arab world which is practiced by eminent Sufis and Mashaikh. People who carry deep Bughz (hatred) for Sufis are often seen spreading propaganda that Sufis are dancers and they have nothing to do with Shariah, but what they forget is that they have no proof whatsoever from Quran and Sunnah on “NAFI” of Raqs whereas we have overwhelming proofs which establish Raqs directly from hadith itself, even absence of Nafi is itself a proof of it being allowed and it cannot be declared haram until proven otherwise.


عن أنس قال: «كانت الحبشة يزفنون بين يدي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلّم ويرقصون ويقولون: محمد عبد صالح ، فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلّم: ما يقولون؟ قالوا: يقولون: محمد عبد صالح

Translation: It is narrated by Anas (R.A) that the Habashis were presenting their art in front of the Prophet (
صلى الله عليه وسلم) and “THEY WERE DANCING (Yarqasun)” while saying: Muhammadun Abdun Salih (i.e. Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم the righteous slave). The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) asked: What are they saying? They said: Muhammadun Abdun Salih [Musnad Ahmed bin Hanbal, Volume No.3, Page no. 152]

Sheikh Shu’ayb al Ar'anut said after this hadith:

إسناده صحيح على شرط مسلم

Translation: The Chain is “SAHIH” on the criteria of “(SAHIH) MUSLIM” [ibid 3/152]

Note: This hadith explicitly uses the word "RAQS” which proves without any shadow of doubt that It was dancing, however the Anti-Sufi people cite the hadith of Bukhari which only mentions “PLAYING”
Some people claim that this above hadith is only understood from Hadith of Bukhari which mentions Abyssinians or Ethiopians "PLAYING WITH SPEARS" inside the Prophet's Mosque.
Now our reply to them is the same i.e. the Hadith of Bukhari is understood from the Hadith of Musnad Ahmed which is Sahih on criteria of Sahih Muslim, hence both playing and Raqs become allowed, If they are truthful then they should come with proof from hadith which mentions that Raqs is “EXCLUDED” from this. Therefore Alhamdolillah both ahadith go in favour of Sufis.

أتيت النبي ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏وجعفر ‏ ‏وزيد ‏ ‏قال ‏ ‏فقال ‏ ‏لزيد ‏ ‏أنت ‏ ‏مولاي ‏ ‏فحجل ‏ ‏قال وقال ‏ ‏لجعفر ‏ ‏أنت أشبهت خلقي وخلقي قال ‏ ‏فحجل ‏ ‏وراء ‏ ‏زيد ‏ ‏قال وقال لي أنت مني وأنا منك قال ‏ ‏فحجلت ‏ ‏وراء ‏ ‏جعفر

Translation: Hadrat Ali (ra) said: I went to the Prophet (salallaho alaihi wasalam) with Jafar (RA) and Zayd (ra), The Prophet (saw) said to Zayd: You are my freedman (anta Mawlay), “AT THIS ZAYD BEGAN TO HOP ON ONE LEG (HAJALA) AROUND THE PROPHET” then the Prophet (saw) said to Jafar (ra): You resemble me in my creation and my manners, at this Jafar also began to hop behind Zayd, then the Prophet (saw) said to Ali (ra): You are from me and I am from you, at this he also started to hop behind Jafar. [Musnad Ahmed bin Hanbal 1:537 #857]   Click Here for Scanned Page (
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This hadith proves from the acceptance of Prophet (Peace be upon him) and Amal of great Sahaba like Zayd (ra), Jafar (ra) and Mawla Ali (ra) that doing Raqs is fine.

 
Imam al Hafidh al Bayhaqi (rah) in explanation of this hadith said:

وفي هَذَا إنْ صَحَّ دلالةٌ على جوازِ الحَجْلِ، وهو أَنْ يَرْفَعَ رِجْلاً ويَقْفِزَ على الأُخْرَى مِنَ الفَرَحِ، فالرقصُ الَّذِي يكونُ عَلَى مِثَالِهِ يكونُ مِثْلَهُ في الجوازِ. والله أعلمُ

Translation: In this (hadith) is “SAHIH PROOF” and "PERMISSIBILITY" of hopping (dancing) which includes “RISING UP OR JUMPING IN STATE OF JOY” and also that of doing “RAQS” being similar to it which is also allowed – And Allah knows the best [Sunnan al Baihaqi al Kubra (15/333)]

Note: There is one narrator of this hadith i.e. Hani bin Hani upon whom Salafis do Jirah, now here is Mufassar Tadil on him.
Muhaditheen said:

هانئ بن هانئ عن على رضى الله عنه. قال ابن المدينى: مجهول. وقال النسائي: ليس به بأس. وذكره ابن حبان في الثقات

Translation: Hani bin Hani narrated from Ali (Radhi Allaho Anho). Ibn Mudayni said he is Majhool. Imam Nasai (rah) said: “THERE IS NO HARM IN HIM” and Ibn Hibban mentioned him in his “THIQAAT (Reliable narrators)” [Mizan ul Aitidal (7/71)]

Note: Remember being Majhool in sight of some muhadith does not mean the narrator is weak, because all muhaditheen did not know about all rijal, so If Tadeel is done by other Muhaditheen and some call him Majhool then Tadeel will supercede.
A) Imam Tirimdhi declared many ahadith from Hani bin Hani as “HASAN SAHIH” [Sunnan Tirimdhi Volume No.5, Hadith #3798]
B) Imam Ibn Majah (rah) narrated from him and did Sukoot [Sunnan Ibn Majah, Muqadma, Hadith # 143]

C) Imam Ibn Hibban mentioned him in his ”Kitab ul Thiqaat” (5/508)

It is thus radiantly clear that this narration is Sahih, as is also stated by Salafi’s leading Muhadith Shaykh Ahmad Shaakir in his Tahqiq of Musnad Ahmad where he said: “Its chain is sound (
إسناده صحيح)“ [Musnad Ahmad Volume 001, Page No. 537, Hadith Number 857, FN: 2]
D) Imam al Ajli (rah) said:

1885
ـ هانىء ابن هانىء، كوفي، تابعي ثقة

Translation: Hani bin Hani, Kufi “TABI AND THIQA” [Thiqat al Ajli Volume No.1, Page No. 454]
E) Imam al Haythami (rah) said about ahadith having Hani bin Hani

ورجال أحمد والبزار رجال الصحيح غير هانىء بن هانىء وهو ثقة

Translation: The Rijaal of Ahmed and Bazaar are those of Sahih except Hani bin Hani who is “THIQA” [Majma az Zawaid (8/102)]

Nasir ud-din Albani the Salafi authority declared ahadith from Hani bin Hani as “SAHIH” [Sahih Sunnan Ibn Majah by Albani, (1/119)

So the hadith is absolutely sahih and the Jirah Mubhim on this narrator is not given any worth.

Imam Jalal al-Din Suyuti (rah) was asked for a Question “a group of Sufis who had gathered for a session of dhikr,” and he replied: How can one condemn making dhikr while standing, or standing while making dhikr, when Allah Most High says, “. . . those who invoke Allah standing, sitting, and upon their sides” (Qur'an 3:191). And ‘A'isha (Allah be well pleased with her) said, “The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) used to invoke Allah at all of his times” [Sahih Muslim, 1.282: 373]. And if dancing is added to this standing, it may not be condemned, as it is of the joy of spiritual vision and ecstasy, and the hadith exists [in many sources, such as [Musnad al-Imam Ahmad, 1.108, with a sound (hasan) chain of transmission] that Ja‘far ibn Abi Talib danced in front of the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) when the Prophet told him, “You resemble me in looks and in character,” dancing from the happiness he felt from being thus addressed.......and the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) did not condemn him for doing so, this being a basis for the legal acceptability of the Sufis dancing from the joys of the ecstasies they experience, Hence it is correct to stand and dance during gatherings of Dhikr and Sama according to a group of Majority of Scholars, among them being Shaykh ul-Islam Iz udin bin Abd al-Salaam.

Reference:

Imam Jalal ud din Suyuti (Rahimuhullah) in Al Hawi lil Fatawi, Volume No. 2, Page No. 234 Published by Maktaba al Asriyyah, Beirut, Lebanon.

Click Here for Scanned Page (
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So the Sultan of Ulama i.e. Imam al Hafidh Izz bin Abdus Salaam (rah) allowed Raqs along with “GREAT SCHOLARS” as said by Imam Suyuti (rah) who was himself Mujaddad of his time. 

Imam Nawawi said: “Dancing is not unlawful, unless it is languid, like the movements of the effeminate. And it is permissible to speak and to sing poetry, unless it satirizes someone, is obscene, or alludes to a particular woman” [Minhaj at talibin wa `umdat al-muttaqin. Cairo 1338/1920. Reprint. Cairo: Mustafa al-Babi al-Halabi edition, Pae No. 152

Imam Ibn Hajar Al-Haytami also mentions “it is permissible to stand and dance during gatherings of Dhikr and audition according to a group of great scholars, among them being Shaykh al- Islam Ibn Abdus Salam.” (Fatawa al-hadithiyya, p. 298)
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Ibn `Abd al-Salam also says:

“Dancing is an innovation which is not countenanced except by one deficient in his mind. It is unfitting for other than women. As for the audition of poetry (sama`) that STIRS one toward states of purity (ahwal saniyya) which remind one of the hereafter: there is nothing wrong with it, nay, it is recommended (yundab ilayh) for lukewarm and dry hearts. However, the one who harbors wrong desires in his heart is not allowed to attend the sama`, for it stirs up whatever desire is already in the heart, both the detestable and the desirable.”  Fatawa Misriyya p. 158.

Now put the text above with the following text:

 “He [Ibn `Abd al-Salam] would attend the sama` and dance in states of ecstasy”

(kana yahduru al-sama` wa-yarqusu wa-yatawajad )

Al-Dhahabi, Siyar (17:33)
Ibn al-Subki, Tabaqat al-Shafi`iyya al-Kubra
Ibn al-`Imad, Shadharat al-Dhahab (5:302)
Ibn Shakir al-Kutabi, Fawat al-Wafayat (1:595).

So you see that these two texts counterbalance the third text which begins “Dancing and clapping are frivolous displays…” etc.



As for what those people quote out of context about Suyuti, Haytami, al-Subki etc. it is all read in the light of the writings on sama` by more authoritative Shafiis such as Sulami, Ghazali and Suhrawardi, whose conclusion is permission of musical sama` and movement in Hadrah as long as there is no excess.

 This is also the conclusion of Suyuti in his book in defense of the Shadhili Tariqah entitled Tashyid al-Tariqat al-`Aliyyah.

What the critics are mixing into this is the prohibition of tavern music and other aspects such as licentiousness (ibaha, ibahiyya) and the inveterate lover of what we could translate as “dance halls and concerts” (mughanni, raqqas…) which are not the issue; or true anti-Sufi literature which carries no weight, such as for example Shaykh Ibrahim al-Halabi the Hanafi Faqih and his book against dancing.

Either they know this and they are hypocritical about it, or they do not know this and they are ignoramuses to bring it up.

Why else would they bring up al-Subki’s criticism of Sufis when he evidently means corrupt types in his time, such as professional beggars, just as Ghazali criticized corrupt types in his?

Does that make Ghazali a critic of tasawwuf ? Never.

Besides, Subki also has lavish praise of the Sufis, why do they not quote it?

If one brings together all the old texts on sama` and wajd they will understand that the Shafi`i position is very precise and scrupulous about this, and draws distinction between the act of corrupt/ignorant people on the one hand, and the act of spiritual people who practice an accepted type of  sama` which is what the Hadrah is.

Even if it were considered purely as recreation, it still has an asl which is what Abu al-Darda’ said:

 “I do revigorate myself with a bit of nonsense to strengthen myself for worship.”

Al-Mawardi cited it in his encyclopaedia of Shafi`i Fiqh entitled al-Hawi al-Kabir (17:393).

Some muftis in Saudi Arabia use this report to permit playing dominos; but mentioning Allah and singing His Prophet’s praise is better and yes, it is worship; but the accompanying movements caused by elation or mustering energy are not.

 Like the celebration of Mawlid, the entirety of the act does not constitute a new form of worship but is only made of several constituents, some of which qualify as worship and make that legally-indifferent (mubah) activity blessed and beneficial for the believer. The least benefit that the Hadrah would do is at least to stem that mortal pride that has all but wreaked havoc on those critics’ religion, and Allah knows best.


Abu Araka al-Kufi (son of the Companion Maalik b. Aamir b. Amroon al-Bajali), after praying the dawn prayer behind Sayyidina Ali (Allah ennoble his face), saw him pensive and sad, then he heard him say:

 “I have seen a remnant of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah salla Allahu `alayhi wa-sallam. I see no one who resembles them now. By Allah! They used to rise in the morning disheveled, dust-covered, pale, with something between their eyes like a goat’s knee, having spent the night chanting the Book of Allah, turning and returning from their feet to their foreheads. When Allah Most High was mentioned *they swayed the way trees sway on a windy day*, then their eyes poured out tears until – by Allah! – they soaked their clothes. By Allah! Folks today are asleep, heedless.”

Narrated by Ibn Abi al-Dunya in al-Hathth `ala Qiyam al-Layl (1:210-211 §203), Abu Nu`aym with two chains in Hilyat al-Awliya’ (1985 ed. 1:76 and 10:388), al-Khatib in Mudih Awham al-Jam` wal-Tafriq (2:330-331), Ibn `Asakir in Tarikh Dimashq (42:492), Ibn Kathir in al-Bidaya (8:6-7), and Hafiz Murtada al-Zabidi in Ithaf al-Sadat al-Muttaqin (10:130).

Fatwa of Sultan al-`Ulama al-`Izz b. `Abd al-Salam (Allah have mercy on him):

Concerning the priority of the knowers of Allah over the knowers of the Divine rulings, the saying of the teacher Abu Hamid [al-Ghazali] is agreed upon. No reasonable person doubts that the knowers of Allah… are not only better than the knowers of the Divine rulings, but also better than those of the branches and the roots of the Religion, because the rank of a science is according to its immediate object…. Most of the time scholars are veiled from their knowledge of Allah and His Attributes, otherwise they would be among the knowers of Allah whose knowledge is continuous, as befits the demand of true virtue. And how could the gnostics (`arifin) and the jurists (fuqaha’) be the same, when Allah says: {The noblest among you in the sight of Allah are the most godwary}) (49:13)?… By the “erudite” in His saying {The erudite alone among His bondsmen fear Allah} (35:28), He means those who know Him, His Attributes, and His actions, not those who know His rulings.… A sign of the superiority of the knowers of Allah over the jurists is that Allah effects miracles at the hands of the former, but never at the hands of the latter, except when they enter the path of the knowers and acquire their characteristics.
Ibn `Abd al-Salam, Fatawa (p. 138-142).


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(Edited by ADHM)

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Answering Wahhabies/ Salafies

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