ورواه ابن أبى شيبة في مصنفه عن عفان ، عن سعيد بن ميناء ، عن جابر وابن عباس أنهما قالا : ولد رسول الله
صلى الله عليه وسلم عام الفيل يوم الاثنين الثانى عشر من شهر ربيع الاول
Translation: Ibn Abi Shaybah (rah) in his Musannaf narrates from Affan>>Sa’id>>Jabir and Ibn Abbas (ridhwan Allahu ajmain) who said: Rasul Ullah (salallaho alaihi wasalam) was "born in the year of elephant on Monday, the 12th Rabi Ul Awwal" [Ibn Kathir in Seerat un Nabi, Volume 1, Page No. 199]
والله أعلم .
This is what is famous amongst Majority and Allah knows the best [ibid]
“Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was born on a Monday, annunciation of prophethood was on a Monday, migration from Makka was on a Monday, arrival at Madina was on a Monday, the day he left this temporary world was a Monday and the day he lifted the black stone and placed it in the wall of the ka‘ba was also a Monday.”
Then he continued that whomsoever have said that the date of birth was Friday, the seventeenth of Rabi‘al-Awwal, are completely incorrect and far from the truth.[al-Sira al-Nabawiyya]
Ibn Ishaq and Ibn Abi Shayba in his Musannaf, have both narrated this date;“Ibn Abi Shayba in his Musannaf relates from ‘Affan, who relates from Sa‘id ibn Mina’, who relates from Jabir and Ibn Abbas that they said, “Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was born during the year of the elephant, Monday, the twelfth of Rabi‘ al-Awwal. On this day, he announced prophethood, and on this day he ascended to the heavens, and on this day he migrated, and on this day he passed away.” And this is the view of the vast majority.” [Allama Ibn Kathir, Sirat Ibn Kathir, volume 1, page 199.]
Imam Ibn Jarir Tabari –
Imâm Ibn Jarîr Tabarî, who was an unparalleled mufassir (exegesis) of the Qur'an, a grammarian and a prolific writer, wrote in relation to this:
"The birth of the Holy Messenger of Allah (sallallâhu ta`âlâ `alayhi wa âlihî wa sallam) occurred on Monday (Yawmul-Ithnayn), the twelfth night of the month of Rabî`ul-Awwal, in the 'Year of the Elephant' (`Âmul-Fîl)." [See See Sûrah Fîl (105) for the details on this event] (Târîkh Tabarî, 2:120)
“After fifty days of the elephant incident and after the passing away of his father, the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was born on Monday, the twelfth of Rabi‘ al- Awwal.” [‘Allama Abu’l-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Muhammad al-Mawardi, A‘lam al-Nubuwwa, page 192.]
Translation: Yahya bin Ma'een (rah) was asked about Muhammad bin Ishaaq (rah), he replied:
The following is a part of a long article by Justice Hadrat Pîr Muhammad Karam Shâh al-Azharî [d. April 1998] (rahmatullâhi `alayh), translated from:
al-`Ulamâ' Magazine (Minhaj-ul-Qur'an Publishers, July, 1998), pp. 27-30:
There is no difference of opinion about the day of the Holy Prophet's (sallallâhu `alayhi wa sallam) birth (yawmul-mîlâd)being Monday. There also seems to be an agreement among the traditional scholars of this Ummah that the month of this blessed occasion was Rabî`ul-Awwal. The researchers have not given any consideration to the reports about it occurring in the months of Muharram and Ramadân. The question which remains is, what date of Rabî`ul-Awwal did the conveyer of truth and guidance appear on the earth? There are various sayings of the scholars on this but with the help of the writings of the Muhaqqiqîn (researcher scholars) it is easy to give the correct position.
Then he continued that whomsoever have said that the date of birth was Friday, the seventeenth of Rabi‘ al-Awwal, are completely incorrect and far from the truth.
These 2 are the oldest Seerah/Tarikh specialists and the opinion held by Salaf will supersede the opinions held by latter people.
3. Imam Ibn-e-Jareer at-Tabari (224-310 AH): Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was born on Monday 12 Rabi-ul-Awal in Aam-ul-Feel. (Tarikh-ul-Umam-wal-Muluk, Vol. 2, Page 125)
4. Allama Abu-ul-Hasan Ali Bin Muhammad Al-Mawardi (370-480 H): Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was born 50 days after the event of Ashab-ul-Feel and after the death of His father on Monday 12 Rabi-ul-Awal. (Ailam-un-Nabuwa, Page 192)
5. Imam Al-Hafiz Abu-ul-Fatah Al-Undalasi (671-734 H): Our leader and our Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), the Messenger of Allah, was born on Monday 12 Rabi-ul-Awal in Aam-ul-Feel. (Aayun-al-Asr, Vol.1, Page 33)
6. Muhammad As-Sadiq Ibrahim Arjoon: From various turaq (chains) it has been established as true that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was born on Monday 12 Rabi-ul-Awal in Aam-ul-Feel in the reign of Kasara Noshairwan. (Muhammad Rasool Ullah, Vol. 1, Page 102)
7. Sheikh Abdul-Haq Muhadath Dehlvi (950-1052 H): Know it well, that over-whelming majority of the experts of sayar and tarikh (i.e. biographers and historians) hold the opinion that An-Hazrat (i.e. the prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was born in Aam-ul-Feel … It is well known that the month was of Rabi-ul-Awal and its date was 12. Various scholars have shown their agreement with this (date). (Madarij-un-Nabuwa, Vol. 2, Page 14)
8. Even Wahabi authority bigger than Mubarakpuri sahab i.e. Nawab Muhammad Sadiq Hasan Khan Bohapalvi said: The birth (of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) happened in Mecca at the time of Fajr on Monday 12 Rabi-ul-Awal in Aam-ul-Feel. Majority of scholars holds this opinion. Ibn-e-Jozi has narrated a consensus (of scholars) on it. (Ash-Shumama-tul-Anbariya Fi Mowlid Khair-al-Bariya, Page 7)
“Know with certainty that the vast majority of the people of prophetic biography and history are of the opinion that the birth of the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) occurred during the year of the elephant and forty or fifty five days after the incident of the elephant. This second opinion of fifty five days is the most correct and authentic. It is wellknown (mashhur) that it was the month of Rabi‘ al-Awwal and the date was the twelfth. The scholars are in agreement over this.” [Shaykh ‘Abd al-Haqq Muhaddith Dihlawi, Madarij al-Nubuwwa, volume 2, page 15.]
He said: May Allah have mercy on the one who turns the nights of the month of the Prophet's birth into celebration in order to decrease the suffering of those whose hearts are filled with disease and sickness."[Al-Muwahib- Volume 1, Page No 148]
Imam Jalal ud-din Suyuti (rah) beautifully proved how celebration and rejoicing on Mawlid supersedes the concept of getting sad on death of Prophet (Peace be upon him).
Translation: The birth of Prophet (salallaho alaihi wasalam) is a great blessing for us and his death is very saddening for us too, however Shariah has ordered us to rejoice and thank Allah on blessings, whereas on calamity it has taught us to have patience while hiding it, this is why Shariah has told us to do Aqiqa on birth which is a form of being happy and thankful to Allah for giving us birth, but on death there is no concept of sacrificing an animal and even lamenting is forbidden. Hence in light of rulings prescribed by shariah one should rejoice on Rabi ul Awwal on birth of our beloved Prophet (salallaho alaihi wasalam) [As-Suyuti – Rahimuhullah in Al Hawi lil Fatawi, Volume 1, Page No. 298, Published by Maktaba al Asriya, Beirut, Lebanon]
*This is the name of original Risalah which Imam Ahmed Ridha (rah) wrote and It is mentioned in 26th volume of Fatawa Ridhwiyyah, Mas'ala # 217
But I don't think you need rocket science to figure out the "Acted upon" opinion. It has been acted upon in the Muslim world, whether you are in Misr, Bahrain, UAE, Jordan etc... even Pakistan you will see public holiday on 12th Rabi ul Awwal, none of the Arab countries hold a public holiday on 9th.
Now when this is established then I want you to see this hadith:
- Islamic Republic of Pakistan
- United Arab Emirates (UAE)
- Turkey (not a public holiday, but mosques are illuminated, special foods and treats are prepared, and you can participate, actively or passively, in the celebrations)