Saturday, 21 February 2015

The ruling of seeking aid with the Prophet (s) according to the scholars of the Shafi'i Madhhab - Part 2





Imam Taqi al-Din al-Subki (d. 756 AH) regarding Tawassul, Istighathah and Tashaffu':


We're seeing some people in our time who have begun to claim that when the Imam Taqi al-Din al-Subki (d. 756 AH) spoke regarding the permissibility of performing Tawassul, Tashaffu' and Istighathah with our beloved Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - he only meant Tawassul, while some others claim that he only meant Tawassul and Tashaffu', but not Istighathah. And both of these claims are not correct, rather he allowed all of the three and simply regarded them as different types of Tawassul as will be shown now by the help of Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala and his permission.

Imam Taqi al-Din al-Subki
said in his book "
Shifa` al-Saqam fi Ziyarat Khayr al-Anam" (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-'Ilmiyyah, 2008) (click here to read it online or here as pdf) under the 8th chapter, which is regarding performing Tawassul, Istighathah and Tashaffu' with the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam -, the following (p. 357):

اعلم : أنه يَجُوزُ ، وَيَحسنُ التَّوسلُ ، والاستغاثة ، والتَّشفُع بالنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى ربه سبحانه وتعالى ، وَجوازُ ذلك وَحُسنهُ ؛ من الأمور المعلُومةِ لِكُلِّ ذي دين ، المعروفة من فِعلِ الأنبياء والمرسلين ، وسِيَرِ السلف الصالحين ، والعلماء والعوام من المسلمين ، ولم يُنكِر أَحدٌ ذلك من أهل الأديان ، ولا سُمعَ به في زمن من الأزمان ، حتى جاء ابن تيمية ؛ فَتكلَّم في ذلك بكلام يُلَبِّسُ فيه على الضعفاء الأغمار ، وابتدع ما لم يُسبق إليه في سائر الأعصار ، ولهذا طعن في الحكاية التي تَقدّم ذكرها عن مَالكٍ رحم الله تعالى ، فإنَّ فيها قول مَالكٍ رحم الله تعالى للمنصور : « استشفع به » . ونحن قد بَيّنا صِحّتها ، ولذلك أدخلنا الاستغاثة في هذا الكتاب ، لما تَعرَّضَ إليها مع الزيارة ، وحسبُكَ أنَّ إنكار ابن تيمية للاستغاثة والتوسل قَولٌ لم يقله عالمٌ قبله ، وصار به بين أهل الإسلام مُثْلهٌ

"Know, that it is permissable and good to perform Tawassul, Istighathah (seeking aid) and Tashaffu' (seeking intercession) through the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - unto his Lord subhanahu wa ta'ala. The permissibility and desirability of this is from the matters that are well known among all those who have religion, and well known from the actions of the Prophets and Messengers, and the way of the righteous Salaf, the scholars, and the layman among the Muslims.
No one has denied this from the people of religion, nor has anyone heard about [denying] this in any time until Ibn Taymiyyah came: So he spoke regarding this with words that deceive the weak inexperienced ones and he innovated that which no one from the eras before held.
This is the reason why he attacked the story which has been already mentioned from [Imam] Malik - may Allah have mercy upon him - for it contains the statement of [Imam] Malik to al-Mansur: "Sought intercession through him". And we've already made its health/correctness clear.
And this is why we've also mentioned Istighathah in this book, because of the attack against it together with [the attack against] the visiting [of the grave of the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam -] and it should be enough for you [to know] that the denunciation of Ibn Taymiyyah against [performing] Istighathah and Tawassul is a statement that no scholar before him had said and he created dissent among the people of Islam by it." - end of the qoute -

Then on p. 358:

وأقول : إنَّ التَّوسُل بالنبي صل الله عليه وسلم جَائزٌ في كل حَالٍ ، قبل خَلْقِه ، وبعد خَلْقِهِ ، في مُدَّةِ حياته في الدنيا ، وبعد موته في مُدّة البرزخ ، وبعد البعث في عرصات القيامة والجنة ، وهو على ثلاثة أنواع

"I say: Tawassul through the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - is permissible in every situation, [both] before his creation and after it, in the time of his life in this world, as well as after his death in the period of the Barzakh, and after the resurrection on the day of reckoning and paradise and it's of three types." - end of the qoute -

Directly after this [on the same page] he says (and this is what we would call as Tawassul):

النوع الأول : أن يتوسَّل به ، بمعنى : أنَّ طالب الحاجة يسألُ الله تعالى به ، أو بجاهه ، أو ببركته ، فيجوز ذلك في الأحوال الثلاثة ، وقد وَرد في كُلٍّ منها خَبرٌ صحيح

"The first type [of Tawassul]: That a person performs Tawassul through him, meaning that the one that seeks the fulfillment of his need asks Allah ta'ala by him or by his rank or his blessings. This is permissible in all three situations and regarding all of them there are authentic reports."
- end of the qoute -

Then on p. 372 (and this is what we would call as Tashaffu'):

النوع الثاني : التوسل به ، بمعنى طلب الدعاء منه ، وذلك في أحوال

"The second type [of Tawassul]: Performing Tawassul throuh him, meaning that one asks him (the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) for supplication (Du'a`) and it's in the [following] situations." - end of the qoute -

(Three situations are mentioned and all of them are allowed: The first is during the life of the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - in this world (see p. 372), the second is on the day of reckoning (see p. 379) and the third situation is in the time between these two and that is the period of the Barzakh (see p. 379) and as an example for this the Athar of Malik al-Dar is mentioned and it's explicitly mentioned that asking our beloved Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - to make Istisqa` (supplication for rain) is allowed just like he was asked for this in [the time of his life] in this world (see p. 382).)

On p. 378:

فإن قال المُخَالف : أنا لا أمنع التوسل والتشفع لما قَدَّمتُم من الآثار والأدلة ، وإنما أمنع إطلاق التَّجوُهِ والاستغاثة ، لأنَّ فيهما إيهام أنَّ المُتَجوَّهَ به ، والمُستغاثَ به ؛ أعلى من المُتجَّوهِ عليه والمُستغاثِ عليه . قُلْنَا : هذا لا يَعتقده مُسلمٌ ، ولا يدل لفظ التَّجَوهُ والاستغاثة عليه ، فإنَّ التَّجُوهَ من الجَاهِ والوجَاهةِ ، ومعناه : علو القدر والمنزلة ، وقد يُتوسّل بذي الجاه إلى من هو أعلى جاهاً منه ، والاستغاثة طلب الغوث . فالمستغيث يطلب من المستغاث به أن يحصل له الغوث من غيره ، وإن كان أعلى منه ، فالتوسل والتَّشفعُ والتَّجوُه والاستغاثة بالنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وسائر الأنبياء والصالحين ؛ ليس لها معنى في قلوب المسلمين غير ذلك ، ولا يقصدُ بها أحدٌ منهم سواه . فمن لم ينشرح صدره لذلك ؛ فَليبك على نفسه ، نسأل العافية

"Now if the opponent says: I'm not disallowing Tawassul and Tashaffu' (seeking intercession) because of the reports and proofs that you've mentioned, but rather I disallow the usage of Tajawwuh and Istighathah, because they create the impression that the one by whom aid is sought is higher than the One whose aid is sought [in reality].
We say [to him]: No Muslim believes this nor does the expression of Tajawwuh and Istighathah indicate this. That is because Tajawwuh comes from [the word] Jah and Wajahah and its meaning is high worth and status. Tawassul could be sought from a possessor of rank (Jah) unto one who possesses a higher rank than him. Istighathah is seeking aid, and the one who is seeking aid is asking from one by whom aid is sought in order to obtain aid from other than him, even if that other is greater than him. So Tawassul, Tashaffu', Tajawwuh and Istighathah with the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - and the rest of the Prophets (Anbiya`) and righteous people (Salihin) has no meaning in the heart of the Muslims other than this and no one from them intends by [performing] these other than this [meaning].
So whoever’s breast is not opened with this, then let him cry over himself. We ask Allah for well-being." - end of the qoute -

On p. 379:

والمُستَغاثُ به في الحقيقة : هو الله تعالى ، والنَّبيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَاسطةٌ بينه وبين المستغيث

"The One whose aid is sought in reality is Allah ta'ala, and the Prophet is an intermediary (Wasitah) between Him and the one seeking aid."
- end of the qoute -

And then on p.382-383 (and this is what we would call as Istighathah):

النوع الثالث من التوسل : ان يُطلبَ منه ذلك الأمر المقصود ، بمعنى أنه صلى الله عليه وسلم قادرٌ على التَّسبُّب فيه ؛ بسؤاله ربه وشفاعته إليه ، فيعود إلى « النوع الثاني » في المعنى ، وإن كانت العبارة مختلفة ، ومن هذا قول القائل للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم : أسألك مُرافقتكَ في الجنة ، قال : « أَعِنِّي على نفسك بكثرة السجود » . والآثار في ذلك كثيرة أيضاً ، ولا يَقصدُ الناس بسؤالهم ذلك إلَّا كون النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم سبباً وشافعاً ، وكذلك جَوابُ النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وإن ورد على حسب السؤال ، كما رُوِّينا في « دلائل النبوة » للبيهقي ، بالإسناد إلى عثمان بن أبي العاص رضي الله عنه قال : شكوتُ إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم سُوء حفظي للقرآن ، فقال : « شيطان يقال له خِنْزَب ، أُدْنُ مني يا عثمان » ، ثم وضع يده على صدري ، فوجدت بردها بين كتفي ، وقال : « اخرج يا شيطان من صدر عثمان » . قال : فما سمعت بعد ذلك شيئاً إلَّا حفظته . فانظر أمر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بالخروج للشيطان ، للعلم بأنَّ ذلك بإذن الله تعالى وخَلْقه وتيسيره ، وليس المراد نِسبَةَ النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى الخَلقِ والاستقلال بالأفعال ؛ هذا لا يَقصِدهُ مُسلم . فَصرفُ الكلام إليه ومنعه من باب التلبيس في الدِّين ، والتشويش على عوام الموحدين

"The third type of Tawassul: That one requests the wanted thing from him (the Prophet), with the meaning that he - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - is able to be an intermediary mean in this by asking his Lord and by his intercession unto Him. So it goes back to the second type [of Tawassul] (and that is to ask for supplication) in meaning, even if the expression [used] is different.
And from this is the statement of the one who said to the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - (
as reported in "Sahih Muslim"): "I ask you for your companionship in paradise". He responded: "Then help me to achieve this for you by devoting yourself often to prostration".
There are also many reports regarding this and the people do not intend by their asking this except the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - to be an intermediary mean (Sabab) and intercessor (Shafi') [in attaining the requested matter].
Likewise the response of the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - even if it was reported in the manner of a request, as we have been reported in
"Dala`il al-Nubuwwah" by [Imam] al-Bayhaqi with a chain of transmission (Isnad) going back to 'Uthman bin Abi al-'As - radhiallahu 'anhu - [in which] he said: "I complained to the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - regarding my weakness in memorizing the Qur`an, so he said [to me]: "A devil who is called Khinzab [is responsible for this], come closer to me o 'Uthman". Then he put his hand on my chest, so that I felt its coldness between my shoulder blades and he said: "Get out, o devil, of the chest of 'Uthman"". He ('Uthman) said: "I did not hear after this anything except that I memorized it."
So look at the command of the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - to the devil to get out, with the knowledge that this is [only possible] with the permission of Allah ta'ala and with Him creating and facilitating it. The intent isn't to ascribe the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - [the ability of] creating (Khalq) and independence in actions (Istiqlal bil Af'al). No Muslim intends such a thing.
So taking the words to this [meaning] and disallowing it [based upon this] is from the deception regarding the religion and from the causing of confusion for the monotheist laymen." - end of the qoute -


Conclusion from the above qoutes: Imam Taqi al-Din al-Subki - may Allah have mercy upon him - regarded Tawassul, Tashaffu' and Istighathah as allowed and regarded them as different types of Tawassul. These different types go back to the same meaning in reality even if the expressions used are different and the real help always comes from Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala alone without any partners.
The Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - is an intermediary mean (Sabab) to get aid [from Allah ta'ala] and it happens through his supplication to his Lord and his intercession unto Him.

--

- There is no difference whether one uses the wording of Tawassul, Tashaffu' or Istighathah, because the intended meaning in all three cases is the same and that is the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - to be an intermediary mean in the fulfillment of one's request.

Imam Taqi al-Din al-Subki
(d. 756) said in his "Shifa` al-Saqam fi Ziyarat Khayr al-Anam" on p. 383 the following:

وإذا قد تحررت هذا الأنواع والأحوال في الطالب من النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ، وظهر المعنى ؛ فلا عليك في تسميته : تَوَسُّلاً ، أو تَشفُّعاً ، أو استغاثةً ، أو تَجوُّهاً ، أو تَوخٌُهاً ؛ لأنَّ المعنى في جميع ذلك سواء

"If these [three] types [of Tawassul] and the [different] situations regarding the one who asks the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - [for aid] has become clear and the meaning has become apparent, then it should not concern you how one calls it: whether it's Tawassul, Tashaffu', Istighathah, Tajawwuh or Tawajjuh, because the [intended] meaning of all of these [different wordings used] is the same."
- end of the qoute -

And he said on p. 385:

فالله تعالى مُستَغاثٌ ، والغوث منه خلقاً وإيجاداً ، والنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم مُستَغاث والغوث منه تسبباً وكسباً

"So Allah ta'ala is the one whose aid is sought and aid comes Him from by the way of creating and bringing fourth. And the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - is one whose aid is sought and aid comes from him by the way of being an intermediary mean and [by the way] of acquisition." - end of the qoute -


- It's an absolute matter of fact that not a sinlge scholar from the Ahl al-Sunnah prior to Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728 AH) - who is not from the Ahl al-Sunnah anyways - said even one word against seeking intercession through the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam! But rather we find authentic narrations regarding it and scholars - before IT and after him - explicitly allowing it.

Even during the time of Ibn Taymiyyah none of the scholars agreed with him except some of his own students. What does this tell us?

I really don't understand what the justification of the Pseudo-Salafi movement is to put a highly controversial person above all scholars of Islam and to throw all the narrations which show that Tawassul is permissable behind one's back?!?!
This is like accusing the whole Ummah - other than IT and his blind followers - to be ignorant regarding the religion (because you people regard this as a matter of 'Aqidah and not Fiqh)!

--
=============================
Status of Imam Taqi al-Din al-Subki (d. 756 AH)
=============================


Since in our time many people do not know the status of Imam Taqi al-Din al-Subki among the Ahl al-'Ilm and the Muslims of his time in general I wanted to mention the following qoute by Imam Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti (d. 911 AH) regarding him:

الإمام الفقيه المحدث الحافظ المفسر الأصولي المتكلم النحوي اللغوي الأديب المجتهد تقي الدين أبو الحسن علي بن عبد الكافي بن علي بن تمام بن يوسف بن موسى بن تمام بن حامد بن يحيى بن عمر بن عثمان بن علي بن مسوار بن سوار بن سليم شيخ الإسلام إمام العصر

"The Imam, the jurist (Faqih), the traditionist (Muhaddith), the Hafidh, the exegete (Mufassir), the legal theorist (Usuli), the theologian (Mutkallim), the grammarian (Nahwi), the linguist (Lughawi), the writer (Adib), the Mujtahid Taqi al-Din Abul Hasan 'Ali bin 'Abd al-Kafi bin 'Ali bin Tammam bin Yusuf bin Musa bin Tammam bin Hamid bin Yahya bin 'Umar bin 'Uthman bin 'Ali bin Miswar bin Sawwar bin Salim, the Shaykh al-Islam and Imam of [his] era."

Source: "Tabaqat al-Huffadh"

--

Some of the statements of the scholars regarding his book "Shifa` al-Saqam":

- The Shaykh and Adib Salah al-Din al-Safadi (d. 764 AH) - who was a student of Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728 AH) and Imam Taqi al-Din al-Subki - mentioned "Shifa` al-Saqam" ("The Healing of Sickness") among the books of Imam al-Subki and that it was a response against Ibn Tayymiyah's censure of travelling to visit the grave of our Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam.
He also mentioned that he had read "Shifa` al-Saqam" to Imam al-Subki from the beginning till its end in Cairo and thereafter he mentioned a poem regarding the book (note: only the poem has been translated):

وكتاب شفاء السقام في زيارة خير الأنام رداً عليه أيضاً في إنكاره سفر الزيارة، وقرأته عليه بالقاهرة سنة سبع وثلاثين وسبع مائة من أوله إلى آخره، وكتبت عليه طبقةً جاء مما فيها نظماً: من المتقارب
لقول ابن تيمية زخرف ... أتى في زيارة خير الأنام
فجاءت نفوس الورى تشتكي ... إلى خير حبر وأزكى إمام
فصنف هذا وداواهم ... فكان يقيناً شفاء السقام


"Ibn Taymiyya gilded his statement ... Concerning the visit to the Best of Creation,
Whereupon souls came in droves to complain ... To the best of scholars and purest of Imâms
Who compiled this book, providing them with a cure ... And so it was indeed The Healing of Sickness."

Source: "al-Wafi bil Wafiyyat"; translation of the poem taken from here: "Ahmad ibn Taymiyya (661-728) - A Brief Survey"


- The Hafidh Wali al-Din Abu Zur'ah al-'Iraqi (d. 826) said:

وَلِلشَّيْخِ تَقِيِّ الدِّينِ ابْنِ تَيْمِيَّةَ هُنَا كَلامٌ بَشِعٌ عَجِيبٌ ، يَتَضَمَّنُ مَنْعَ شَدِّ الرَّحْلِ لِلزِّيَارَةِ ، وَأَنَّهُ لَيْسَ مِنَ الْقُرْبِ بَلْ بِضِدِّ ذَلِكَ , وَرَدَّ عَلَيْهِ الشَّيْخُ تَقِيُّ الدِّينِ السُّبْكِيُّ فِي شِفَاءِ السَّقَامِ فَشَفَى صُدُورَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

"The Shaykh Taqi al-Din ibn Taymiyya has an abominable statement regarding this issue to the effect that travelling to visit [the grave of the Prophet - sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam -] is prohibited and that it is not a pious deed but rather the contrary. Shaykh Taqi al-Din al-Subki replied to him in [his book] "Shifa` al-Saqam" and healed the breasts of the believers [by it]."

Source: "Tarh al-Tathrib"


- Imam Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti
(d. 911 AH) mentioned that Imam al-Subki had written books which were very good and that they would deserve to be written in gold and among these books he also mentions "Shifa` al-Saqam fi Ziyarat Khayr al-Anam":

وله من المصنفات الجليلة الفائقة التي حقها أن تكتب بماء الذهب، لما فيها من النفائس البديعة، والتدقيقات النفيسة؛ منها ... شفاء السقام في زيارة خير الأنام

Source: "Husn al-Muhadharah"
---
Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala says:

{
وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ إِذ ظَّلَمُوۤاْ أَنْفُسَهُمْ جَآءُوكَ فَٱسْتَغْفَرُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَٱسْتَغْفَرَ لَهُمُ ٱلرَّسُولُ لَوَجَدُواْ ٱللَّهَ تَوَّاباً رَّحِيماً }

{ If they had only, when they were unjust to themselves, come unto thee and asked Allah's forgiveness, and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah indeed Oft-returning, Most Merciful. } [4:64]

If it is said that this Ayah was sent down because of the Munafiqin and that it only applies during the lifetime of the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam -, then the reply is:
The scholars understood the Ayah to be general in meaning and they did not make any distinction between the lifetime of the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - and the time after it.
And a proof for this being their position is that many of them (i.e. classical scholars) have mentioned the narration of al-'Utbi (where the Ayah is also mentioned) and recommended doing that which is mentioned in the narration.

This is the narration of al-'Utbi as mentioned by Imam al-Nawawi (d. 676AH)

كنت جالسا عند قبر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فجاء أعرابي فقال : السلام عليك يا رسول الله سمعت الله يقول ( { ولو أنهم إذ ظلموا أنفسهم جاءوك فاستغفروا الله واستغفر لهم الرسول لوجدوا الله توابا رحيما } ) وقد جئتك مستغفرا من ذنبي مستشفعا بك إلى ربي ثم أنشأ يقول :

يا خير من دفنت بالقاع أعظمه *** فطاب من طيبهن القاع والأكم
نفسي الفداء لقبر أنت ساكنه *** فيه العفاف وفيه الجود والكرم

ثم انصرف فحملتني عيناي فرأيت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في النوم فقال : " يا عتبي الحق الأعرابي فبشره بأن الله تعالى قد غفر له

"As I was sitting by the grave of the Prophet, a Beduin Arab came and said: "Peace be upon you, O Messenger of Allah! I have heard Allah saying: "If they had only, when they were unjust to themselves, come unto thee and asked Allah's forgiveness, and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah indeed Oft-returning, Most Merciful" (4:64), so I have come to you asking forgiveness for my sin, seeking your intercession with my Lord." Then he began to recite poetry:

O best of those whose bones are buried in the deep earth,
And from whose fragrance the depth and the height have become sweet,
May I be the ransom for a grave which thou inhabit,
And in which are found purity, bounty and munificence!

Then he left, and I dozed and saw the Prophet in my sleep. He said to me: "O `Utbi, run after the Beduin and give him glad tidings that Allah has forgiven him.""

Source: "al-Majmu'" and translation taken from here: "Visiting the Prophet's Grave"
--
======================
Imam al-Nawawi (d. 676 AH) on seeking intercession through the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam:

ثم يرجع إلى موقفه الأول قبالة وجه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ويتوسل به في حق نفسه ، ويستشفع به إلى ربه سبحانه وتعالى ، ومن أحسن ما يقول ما حكاه الماوردي والقاضي أبو الطيب وسائر أصحابنا عن العتبي مستحسنين له قال : " كنت جالسا عند قبر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فجاء أعرابي فقال : السلام عليك يا رسول الله سمعت الله يقول ( { ولو أنهم إذ ظلموا أنفسهم جاءوك فاستغفروا الله واستغفر لهم الرسول لوجدوا الله توابا رحيما } ) وقد جئتك مستغفرا من ذنبي مستشفعا بك إلى ربي ثم أنشأ يقول :

يا خير من دفنت بالقاع أعظمه *** فطاب من طيبهن القاع والأكم
نفسي الفداء لقبر أنت ساكنه *** فيه العفاف وفيه الجود والكرم

ثم انصرف فحملتني عيناي فرأيت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في النوم فقال : " يا عتبي الحق الأعرابي فبشره بأن الله تعالى قد غفر له

"Then he (i.e. the one visiting the grave of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) should return to his original position facing the Messenger of Allah - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam -, and he should make him a mean for himself and seek intercession through him unto his Lord subhanahu wa ta'ala.
And the best what can be said [here] is what al-Mawardi (d. 448 AH) and al-Qadhi Abu al-Tayyib (d. 450 AH) and the rest of our [Shafi'i] companions narrated from al-'Utbi and they regarded it as good. He said:

As I was sitting by the grave of the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam -, a Beduin Arab came and said: "Peace be upon you, O Messenger of Allah! I have heard Allah saying: { If they had only, when they were unjust to themselves, come unto thee and asked Allah's forgiveness, and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah indeed Oft-returning, Most Merciful } [4:64], so I have come to you asking forgiveness for my sin, seeking your intercession with my Lord." Then he began to recite poetry:

O best of those whose bones are buried in the deep earth,
And from whose fragrance the depth and the height have become sweet,
May I be the ransom for a grave which thou inhabit,
And in which are found purity, bounty and munificence!

Then he left, and I dozed and saw the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - in my sleep. He said to me: "O 'Utbi, run after the Beduin and give him glad tidings that Allah has forgiven him.""


Source: "al-Majmu'"

--

The meaning of Imam al-Nawawi's statement "wa yatawassalu bihi fi haqqi nafsihi wa yastashfi'u bihi ila rabbihi subhanahu wa ta'ala" is clearly understood, so it would be better for you not make yourself look like a fool by making all kinds of wrong claims

- It's ridicolous to at least that you assume that you've understood Imam al-Nawawi's words better than the scholars of the Shafi'i Madhhab

- According to the logic of your likes 'Uthman bin Hunayf - radhiallahu 'anhu - was teaching "Shirk" in the authentic (!) Hadith of the man in need (see here).

Before you try to deny it: The Wahhabi editor of the book "al-Tadhkirah" of Imam Ibn 'Aqil (d. 513 AH) accused him of "Shirk akbar" for recommending seeking intercession through the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - even though Imam Ibn 'Aqil was using almost the same wording as in the Hadith of 'Uthman bin Hunayf, radhiallahu 'anhu. (Read it here:
 Imam Ibn ‘Aqeel al-Hanbali (d. 513H) recommends tawassul | Wahhabism Unveiled)
Ironically the Wahhabiyyah sometimes [mis]use another qoute by Imam Ibn 'Aqil in order to make Takfir upon the Ahl al-sunnah for no justified reason at all.

- And just a few sentences before the quote I posted Imam al-Nawawi said that one should speak directly to the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, while being in state of awe and reverence:

فإذا صلى التحية في الروضة أو غيرها من المسجد شكر الله تعالى على هذه النعمة وسأله إتمام ما قصده وقبول زيارته . ثم يأتي القبر الكريم فيستدبر القبلة ويستقبل جدار القبر ويبعد من رأس القبر نحو أربع أذرع ، ويجعل القنديل الذي في القبلة عند القبر على رأسه ويقف ناظرا إلى أسفل ما يستقبله من جدار القبر غاض الطرف في مقام الهيبة والإجلال فارغ القلب من علائق الدنيا ، مستحضرا في قلبه جلالة موقفه ومنزلة من هو بحضرته ، ثم يسلم ولا يرفع صوته ، بل يقصد فيقول : السلام عليك يا رسول الله السلام عليك يا نبي الله ، السلام عليك يا خيرة الله ، السلام عليك يا حبيب الله السلام عليك يا سيد المرسلين وخاتم النبيين . السلام عليك يا خير الخلائق أجمعين . السلام عليك وعلى آلك وأهل بيتك وأزواجك وأصحابك أجمعين ، السلام عليك وعلى سائر النبيين وجميع عباد الله الصالحين ، جزاك الله يا رسول الله عنا أفضل ما جزى نبيا ورسولا عن أمته ، وصلى عليك كلما ذكرك ذاكر وغفل عن ذكرك غافل ، أفضل وأكمل ما صلى على أحد من الخلق أجمعين ، أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له ، وأشهد أنك عبده ورسوله ، وخيرته من خلقه وأشهد أنك بلغت الرسالة وأديت الأمانة ونصحت الأمة وجاهدت في الله حق جهاده ، اللهم آته الوسيلة والفضيلة ، وابعثه مقاما محمودا الذي وعدته ، وآته نهاية ما ينبغي أن يسأله السائلون . اللهم صل على محمد عبدك ورسولك النبي الأمي وعلى آل محمد وأزواجه وذريته ، كما صليت على إبراهيم وعلى آل إبراهيم وبارك على محمد وعلى آل محمد ، كما باركت على إبراهيم وعلى آل إبراهيم في العالمين إنك حميد مجيد

Source: "al-Majmu'"

--
Imam al-Nawawi's (d. 676 AH) statement is very clear and that's why there is no need to discuss it.
Let's also not forget that he didn't just say that one should seek intercession through the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam -, but he also mentioned the narration of al-'Utbi and in it is the statement "and I've come to you, asking [Allah] for forgiveness of my sin and seeking intercession through you unto my Lord (mustashfi'an bika ila rabbi)" ("
وقد جئتك مستغفرا من ذنبي مستشفعا بك إلى ربي").
Is there any way to misunderstand this?!

And again: Are the Shafi'i scholars - and also those of other Madhahib - unable to understand what Imam al-Nawawi meant while you Pseudo-Salafis are able to understand him?

- Imam al-Nawawi has mentioned similar to what was qouted in his "al-Majmu'" also in his "al-Adhkar". Now guess what the Wahabiyyah did when they wanted to print that book? Correct, they simply changed those "Shirki" passages.
-
Shaykh Yusuf al-Rifa'i said:
In the book of al-Adhkar by imam Muhyi al-Din al-Nawawi as published by Dar al-Huda in al-Riyad in 1409/1989 and edited by 'Abd al-Qadir al-Arna'ut of Damascus, page 295, the chapter- title, "Section on Visiting the Grave of the Messenger, peace and greetings be upon him" was substituted with the title, "Section on Visiting the Mosque of the Messenger of Allah, peace and greetings be upon him" together with the suppression of Several lines from the beginning of the section and its end, and the suppression of al-'Utbi's story which Imam al-Nawawi had mentioned in full. [31]

This is a bold felony against an author and his book! When the editor was asked about it, he replied that your agents were the ones who had changed and tampered. I have a facsimile of his own hand-written statement to that effect."

---------------------------------------------------------
Imam al-Mawardi (d. 448 AH) recommends seeking intercession through the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam:

فأما زيارة قبر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فمأمور بها ومندوب إليها ، روى عبيد الله ، عن نافع عن ابن عمر عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه قال : من زار قبري وجبت له شفاعتي ، وحكي عن العتبي أنه قال : كنت عند قبر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فأتى أعرابي ، فقال : يا رسول الله وجدت الله تعالى يقول : ولو أنهم إذ ظلموا أنفسهم جاءوك فاستغفروا الله واستغفر لهم الرسول لوجدوا الله توابا رحيما [ النساء : 64 ] ، وقد جئتك تائبا من ذنبي مستشفعا بك إلى ربي وأنشأ يقول : يا خير من دفنت بالقاع أعظمه *** فطاب من طيبهن القاع والأكم *** نفسي الفداء لقبر أنت ساكنه *** فيه العفاف وفيه الجود والكرم
قال العتبي : فغفوت غفوة فرأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول : يا عتبي الحق الأعرابي ، وأخبره بأن الله تعالى قد غفر له

"As for visiting the grave of the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - then this is something that is ordered [in the Shari'ah] and recommended.
'Ubaydallah reported from Nafi', [who reported] from Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - said: "Whoever visits my grave, then my intercession will surely be granted to him."

And it was narrated from al-'Utbi, that he said:

"As I was sitting by the grave of the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam -, a Beduin Arab came and said: "O Messenger of Allah, I've found Allah ta'ala saying: { If they had only, when they were unjust to themselves, come unto thee and asked Allah's forgiveness, and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah indeed Oft-returning, Most Merciful } [4:64], so I have come to you repenting from my sins and seeking intercession through you unto my Lord." Then he began to recite poetry:

O best of those whose bones are buried in the deep earth,
And from whose fragrance the depth and the height have become sweet,
May I be the ransom for a grave which thou inhabit,
And in which are found purity, bounty and munificence!


Then he left, and I dozed and saw the Messenger of Allah - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - [in my sleep]. He said to me: "O 'Utbi, run after the Beduin and tell him that Allah ta'ala has forgiven him.""

=====================
Imam al-Ghazali (d. 505 AH) on seeking intercession through the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam:
=====================
ثم يقول " اللهم إنك قد قلت وقولك الحق { ولو أنهم إذ ظلموا أنفسهم جاءوك فاستغفروا الله واستغفر لهم الرسول لوجدوا الله تواباً رحيماً } اللهم إنا قد سمعنا قولك وأطعنا أمرك وقصدنا نبيك متشفعين به إليك في ذنوبنا وما أثقل ظهورنا من أوزارنا تائبين من زللنا معترفين بخطايانا وتقصيرنا فتب اللهم علينا وشفع نبيك هذا فينا وارفعنا بمنزلته عندك وحقه عليك

"Then he (i.e. the person who is visiting the grave of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) should say:
O Allah, You spoke and your saying is the truth: { If they had only, when they were unjust to themselves, come unto thee and asked Allah's forgiveness, and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah indeed Oft-returning, Most Merciful } [4:64].
O Allah, we've indeed heard your statement and followed your command and came to your Prophet seeking intercession through him unto You for our sins and burdens that weigh [heavily] on our backs, repenting from our faults and confessing our errors and shortcomings.
So grant us forgiveness, o Allah, and let this your Prophet intercede for us, and elevate us by virtue of his rank and right with You."
Source: "Ihya` 'Ulum al-Din"
--
======================
Imam Ibn al-Salah (d. 643 AH) regarded the fullfillment of one's needs when one performs Tawassul with the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - among the miracles (Mu'jizat) that Allah granted to our Prophet, 'alayhi salatu wa salam:

حتى لقد انتدب بعض العلماء لاستقصائها فجمع منها ألف معجزة وعددناه مقصرا إذا فوق ذلك بأضعاف لا تحصى فإنها ليست محصورة على ما وجد منها في عصره - صلى الله عليه وسلم - بل لم تزل تتجدد بعده - صلى الله عليه وسلم - على تعاقب العصور وذلك أن كرامات الأولياء من أمته وإجابات المتوسلين به في حوائجهم ومغوثاتهم عقيب توسلهم به في شدائدهم براهين له - صلى الله عليه وسلم - قواطع ومعجزات له سواطع ولا يعدها عد ولا يحصرها حد

In fact, one of the scholars attempted to enumerate these miracles, and counted one thousand; and even then, we consider him to have fallen short, for they are many multiples of that, and are, in fact, innumerable. They are not limited to only those that appeared at his hands during his life (peace and blessings of God be upon him); rather, they are continuously renewed after him (peace and blessings of God be upon him) with the turning of the ages; for the miracles (karamat) of the saints of his nation, and the answers to those who pray for the fulfilment of their needs by seeking intercession through him, and the succour which they find after seeking his intercession, by which they are delivered in the hour of their most dire need. . . all of these are unequivocal proofs of his greatness, and are to be counted as obvious miracles ascribed to him. As such, they have no limit!

Source: "Fatawa Ibn al-Salah" and translation taken from here: "Traditionalism against Scholasticism: The Debate Over “Curriculum” in Damascus Between 1150-1350"
--
======================
Imam al-Samhudi (d. 911 AH) on Tawassul, Tashaffu' and Istighathah:

He said under the Fasl regarding performing Tawassul with the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam:

التوسل والتشفع به صلى الله عليه وسلم وبجاهه وبركته من سنن المرسلين وسير السلف الصالحين

"Tawassul and Tashaffu' through him - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - and by his rank and blessing is from the Sunan of the Messengers and from the way of the Salaf al-salih."

Source: "Khulasat al-Wafa bi Akhbar Dar al-Mustafa"

He mentioned different proofs for this and among them the Hadith of the blind man and the Hadith of the man in need and the narration of Malik al-Dar (all three have been qouted here) and other than that.

And this what he also mentioned:

وإذا جاز التوسل بالأعمال كما صح في حديث الغار وهي مخلوقة فالسؤال به صلى الله عليه وسلم أولى ولا فرق في ذلك بين التعبير بالتوسل أو الاستعانة أو التشفع أو التوجه به صلى الله عليه وسلم في الحاجة وقد يكون ذلك بمعنى طلب أن يدعو كما في حال الحياة إذ هو غير ممتنع مع علمه بسؤال من يسأله

"And if it's permisable to make Tawassul with actions / deeds - as in the authentic narration of the cave - while they're created, then asking through him - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - is more preferable (because he's the best of all creations), and it does not make any difference whether one expresses this while using [the wording of] Tawassul, Istighathah, Tashaffu' or Tawajjuh with him - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - regarding one's need.
This can be with the meaning that one requests him to supplicate [to Allah] as it was the case in his lifetime, for this is not impossible while he has knowledge of the question of the one who asks him."

Source: "Khulasat al-Wafa bi Akhbar Dar al-Mustafa"

He also said while speaking about the Ziyarah:

ثم يقول يا رسول الله أن الله تعالى قال فيما أنزل عليك (ولو أنهم إذ ظلموا أنفسهم) الآية وقد ظلمت نفسي ظلما كثيرا وأتيت بجهلي وغفلتي أمرا كبيرا وقد وفدت عليك زائرا وبك مستجيرا وجئتك مستغفرا من ذنبي سائلا منك أن تشفع لي إلى ربي وأنت شفيع المذنبين المقبول الوجيه عند رب العالمين وها أنا معترف بذنبي متوسل بك إلى الله مستشفع بك إليه وأسأل الله البرّ الرحيم بك أن يغفر لي ويميتني على سنتك ومحبتك ويحشرني في زمرتك ويوردني وأحبائي حوضك غير خزايا ولا نادمين فأشفع لي يا رسول رب العالمين

"Then he should say: "O Messenger of Allah, Allah ta'ala said in that which he send down upon you: { If they had only, when they were unjust to themselves... } [4:64] [until the end of] the Ayah, and I've indeed wronged myself with much injustice and commited huge matters (i.e. sins) because of my ignorance and negligence, and I've come to you as a visitor and seeker of help, seeking [Allah's] forgiveness for my sins, asking you to intercede for me to my Lord.
You are the intercessor of the sinfuls ones and the accepted and eminent one with the Lord of the worlds. Here I am confessing my faults, performing Tawassul with you unto Allah and seeking intercession through you unto Him.
And I ask Allah - the Beneficent, the Most-Merciful - through you that He forgives me and that He lets me die upon your Sunnah and love and that He gathers me in your group and allows me and my loved ones to get to your Hawdh without disgrace nor regret.
So intercede for me, o Messenger of the Lord of the worlds."

Source: "Khulasat al-Wafa bi Akhbar Dar al-Mustafa" and the next page

=======================
Imam al-Qastallani (d. 923 AH) on Tawassul, Tashaffu' and Istighathah:
=======================
While speaking about the Mu'jizat (miracles) of our Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - he mentions that also many of these miracles happen after his death and he also mentions Istighathah in this context and says that this will be discussed in the chapter regarding visiting the noble grave of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam:

وأما القسم الثانى ما وقع بعد وفاته- ص:
وهو ما وقع بعد وفاته- صلى الله عليه وسلم- فكثير جدّا، إذ فى كل حين يقع لخواص أمته من خوارق العادات بسببه مما يدل على تعظيم قدره الكريم ما لا يحصى كالاستغاثة به وغير ذلك مما يأتى فى المقصد الأخير، فى أثناء الكلام على زيارة قبره الشريف المنير

Source: "al-Mawahib al-Ladunniyyah" and the next page

And this is the relevant passage which he refered to above:

وينبغى للزائر أن يكثر من الدعاد والتضرع والاستغاثة والتشفع والتوسل به- صلى الله عليه وسلم-، فجدير بمن استشفع به أن يشفعه الله تعالى فيه.
واعلم أن الاستغاثة هى طلب الغوث، فالمستغيث يطلب من المستغاث به أن يحصل له الغوث منه، فلا فرق بين أن يعبر بلفظ: الاستغاثة أو التوسل أو التشفع أو التجوّه أو التوجه، لأنهما من الجاه والوجاهة ومعناه: علو القدر والمنزلة.
وقد يتوسل بصاحب الجاه إلى من هو أعلى منه، ثم إن كلا من الاستغاثة والتوسل والتشفع والتوجه بالنبى- صلى الله عليه وسلم- كما ذكره فى «تحقيق النصرة» و «مصباح الظلام» - واقع فى كل حال، قبل خلقه وبعد خلقه، فى مدة حياته فى الدنيا وبعد موته فى مدة البرزخ، وبعد البعث فى عرصات القيامة

"The visitor (Za`ir) should supplicate and beseech [Allah] much and [he should] perform Istighathah (seeking aid), Tashaffu' (seeking intercession) and Tawassul through him (the Prophet) - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam -, so that he becomes worthy of Allah ta'ala letting the one whose intercession he sought to intercede for him.
Know that Istighathah is seeking aid, and the person who is seeking aid is asking from one by whom aid is sought in order to obtain aid from [other than] him (i.e. the person seeking aid with the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - is doing this in order to obtain aid from Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala). And that is why there is no difference whether one expresses this by using the wording of Istighathah, Tawassul, Tashaffu', Tajawwuh or Tawajjuh, because all of this goes back to [asking by the] Jah and Wajahah and its meaning is [to ask by the] high worth and status. Tawassul can be sought from a possessor of rank (Jah) unto one who possesses a higher rank than him.
Add to this: Istighathah, Tawassul, Tashaffu' and Tawajjuh with the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - is something that takes place [in reality] - as it's mentioned in "Tahqiq al-Nusrah [bi Talkhis Ma'alim Dar al-Hijrah]" [by Abu Bakr bin al-Husayn bin 'Umar al-Maraghi (d. 816 AH)] and "Misbah al-Dhalam [fil Mustaghithin bi Khayr al-Anam]"* [by Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad bin Musa bin al-Nu'man al-Marakashi (d. 683 AH)] - in every situation, before his creation and after it, in the time of his life in this world, as well as after his death in the period of the Barzakh, and after the resurrection on the day of reckoning."

Source: "Al-Muwahib al-Ladunniyyah" and the next page

After the above qoute he mentions proofs for the permissibility of performing Tawassul with the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - in the different situations.

* "Misbah al-Dhalam fil Mustaghithin bi Khayr al-Anam" is a book written by Imam Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad bin Musa bin al-Nu'man al-Marakashi (d. 683 AH) and it's filled with Ahadith and Athar containing Tawassul, Tashaffu' and Istighathah in every situation (i.e. also after the death of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam)
(It's a 100 % "Quburi" and "Shirki" book according to Najdi [lack of] understanding).
The author was born in Tilimsan in the year 606/607 AH and lived prior to Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728 AH) and Imam Taqi al-Din al-Subki (d. 756 AH) and many leading scholars of the Ahl al-Sunnah after him have referred to his book and reported from it without any objection.


================================
The Shaykh Salah al-Din al-Safadi (d. 764) mentioned that he was a Maliki Faqih, a Zahid, a 'Abid and a 'Arif and he also mentioned his book "Misbah al-Dhalam":
مُحَمَّد بن مُوسَى بن النُّعْمَان الشَّيْخ أَبُو عبد الله المزالي التلمساني ... وَكَانَ فَقِيها مالكياً زاهداً عابداً عَارِفًا ... وَله تصانيف مِنْهَا كتاب مِصْبَاح الظلام فِي المستغيثين بِخَير الْأَنَام فِي الْيَقَظَة والمنام
Source: "al-Wafi bil Wafiyyat"

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Shaykh al-Islam Zakariyyah al-Ansari (d. 926 AH) on seeking intercession through the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam:

ثُمَّ وَقَفَ مُسْتَدْبِرَ الْقِبْلَةِ مُسْتَقْبِلَ رَأْسِ الْقَبْرِ الشَّرِيفِ وَيَبْعُدُ مِنْهُ نَحْوَ أَرْبَعَةِ أَذْرُعٍ نَاظِرًا لِأَسْفَلَ مَا يَسْتَقْبِلُهُ فَارِغَ الْقَلْبِ مِنْ علق الدنيا ويسلم بلا رفع صوت وَأَقَلُّهُ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْك يَا رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ثُمَّ يَتَأَخَّرُ صَوْبَ يَمِينِهِ قَدْرَ ذِرَاعٍ فَيُسَلِّمُ عَلَى أَبِي بَكْرٍ ثُمَّ يَتَأَخَّرُ قَدْرَ ذراع فيسلم عَلَى عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا ثُمَّ يَرْجِعُ إلَى مَوْقِفِهِ الْأَوَّلِ قُبَالَةَ وَجْهِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَيَتَوَسَّلُ بِهِ فِي حَقِّ نَفْسِهِ وَيَسْتَشْفِعُ بِهِ إلَى رَبِّهِ ثُمَّ يَسْتَقْبِلُ الْقِبْلَةَ وَيَدْعُو بِمَا شَاءَ لِنَفْسِهِ وَلِلْمُسْلِمِينَ

"Then he should stand [there] while leaving the Qiblah behind him and facing the head of the noble grave with an distance of approximately four ells, looking at the lower part of what faces him, emptying his heart of worldly concerns and he should greet [the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam -] without raising his voice [too much].
The least [that should be said] is: "Peace be upon you, o Messenger of Allah". Thereafter he should should step an ell to the right and greet Abu Bakr and then he should step an[other] ell [to the right] and greet 'Umar, may Allah be pleased with them.
And then he should return to his original position facing the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - and take him as a mean for himself and seek intercession through him unto his Lord.
Thereafter he should face the Qiblah and supplicate for himself and the [rest of the] Muslims with whatever he wants."

Source: "Fath al-Wahhab bi Sharh Manhaj al-Tullab" and the next page

What is intereresting to note is that Imam Zakariyyah al-Ansari became 100 years old and that Imam Shihab al-Din al-Ramli (d. 957 AH) and Imam Ibn Hajar al-Haytami (d. 974 AH) were among his students and we've already seen (here and here) how both of them allowed seeking aid with the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam.

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Imam Shihab al-Din al-Ramli (d. 957 AH) and his son Imam Shams al-Din al-Ramli (d. 1004 AH) regarding the seeking of aid with the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam:

Imam Shams al-Din al-Ramli mentioned in his collection of the Fatawa of his father:

(
سُئِلَ) عَمَّا يَقَعُ مِنْ الْعَامَّةِ مِنْ قَوْلِهِمْ عِنْدَ الشَّدَائِدِ يَا شَيْخُ فُلَانٌ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَنَحْوِ ذَلِكَ مِنْ الِاسْتِغَاثَةِ بِالْأَنْبِيَاءِ وَالْمُرْسَلِينَ وَالْأَوْلِيَاءِ وَالْعُلَمَاءِ وَالصَّالِحِينَ فَهَلْ ذَلِكَ جَائِزٌ أَمْ لَا وَهَلْ لِلرُّسُلِ وَالْأَنْبِيَاءِ وَالْأَوْلِيَاءِ وَالصَّالِحِينَ وَالْمَشَايِخِ إغَاثَةٌ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهِمْ وَمَاذَا يُرَجِّحُ ذَلِكَ؟
(
فَأَجَابَ) بِأَنَّ الِاسْتِغَاثَةَ بِالْأَنْبِيَاءِ وَالْمُرْسَلِينَ وَالْأَوْلِيَاءِ وَالْعُلَمَاءِ وَالصَّالِحِينَ جَائِزَةٌ وَلِلرُّسُلِ وَالْأَنْبِيَاءِ وَالْأَوْلِيَاءِ وَالصَّالِحِينَ إغَاثَةٌ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهِمْ؛ لِأَنَّ مُعْجِزَةَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ وَكَرَامَاتِ الْأَوْلِيَاءِ لَا تَنْقَطِعُ بِمَوْتِهِمْ. أَمَّا الْأَنْبِيَاءُ فَلِأَنَّهُمْ أَحْيَاءٌ فِي قُبُورِهِمْ يُصَلُّونَ وَيَحُجُّونَ كَمَا وَرَدَتْ بِهِ الْأَخْبَارُ وَتَكُونُ الْإِغَاثَةُ مِنْهُمْ مُعْجِزَةً لَهُمْ. وَالشُّهَدَاءُ أَيْضًا أَحْيَاءٌ شُوهِدُوا نَهَارًا جِهَارًا يُقَاتِلُونَ الْكُفَّارَ.
وَأَمَّا الْأَوْلِيَاءُ فَهِيَ كَرَامَةٌ لَهُمْ فَإِنَّ أَهْلَ الْحَقِّ عَلَى أَنَّهُ يَقَعُ مِنْ الْأَوْلِيَاءِ بِقَصْدٍ وَبِغَيْرِ قَصْدٍ أُمُورٌ خَارِقَةٌ لِلْعَادَةِ يُجْرِيهَا اللَّهُ تَعَالَى بِسَبَبِهِمْ وَالدَّلِيلُ عَلَى جَوَازِهَا أَنَّهَا أُمُورٌ مُمْكِنَةٌ لَا يَلْزَمُ مِنْ جَوَازِ وُقُوعِهَا مُحَالٌ وَكُلُّ مَا هَذَا شَأْنُهُ فَهُوَ جَائِزُ الْوُقُوعِ وَعَلَى الْوُقُوعِ قِصَّةُ مَرْيَمَ وَرِزْقُهَا الْآتِي مِنْ عِنْدِ اللَّهِ عَلَى مَا نَطَقَ بِهِ التَّنْزِيلُ وَقِصَّةُ أَبِي بَكْرٍ، وَأَضْيَافِهِ كَمَا فِي الصَّحِيحِ وَجَرَيَانُ النِّيلِ بِكِتَابِ عُمَرَ وَرُؤْيَتُهُ وَهُوَ عَلَى الْمِنْبَرِ بِالْمَدِينَةِ جَيْشَهُ بِنَهَاوَنْدَ حَتَّى قَالَ لِأَمِيرِ الْجَيْشِ يَا سَارِيَةَ الْجَبَلَ مُحَذِّرًا لَهُ مِنْ وَرَاءِ الْجَبَلِ لِكَمِينِ الْعَدُوِّ هُنَاكَ، وَسَمَاعُ سَارِيَةَ كَلَامَهُ وَبَيْنَهُمَا مَسَافَةُ شَهْرَيْنِ، وَشُرْبُ خَالِدٍ السُّمَّ مِنْ غَيْرِ تَضَرُّرٍ بِهِ. وَقَدْ جَرَتْ خَوَارِقُ عَلَى أَيْدِي الصَّحَابَةِ وَالتَّابِعِينَ وَمَنْ بَعْدَهُمْ لَا يُمْكِنُ إنْكَارُهَا لِتَوَاتُرِ مَجْمُوعِهَا، وَبِالْجُمْلَةِ مَا جَازَ أَنْ يَكُونَ مُعْجِزَةً لِنَبِيٍّ جَازَ أَنْ يَكُونَ كَرَامَةً لِوَلِيٍّ لَا فَارِقَ بَيْنَهُمَا إلَّا التَّحَدِّي

Source: "Fatawa al-Ramli"

English translation:
"The Imām was asked: Regarding what occurs amongst the awwām who when in distress say “ya shaykh fulān” and “ya Rasūlullāh” and things like this from seeking aid (istighātha) with the Prophets and the Awliyā, the ‘Ulemā and the righteous, is this permitted or not? And do the Messengers, Prophets, Awliyā, the righteous, and the Mashayekh possess the ability to assist others after their deaths, and what strengthens that view?

He replied: Istighātha (seeking aid) with the Prophets and Messengers, the Awliyā, the ‘Ulemā and the righteous is permitted. The messengers, Prophets and the Awliyā have [the ability to] assist after their death because the miracles of the Prophets and Awliyā are not severed following their death. As for the Prophets..."

Read the rest of his answer here: "Imam al-Ramlī's Fatwa on Istighātha"

==============================
Imam Ibn Hajar al-Haytami (d. 974 AH) words regarding seeking aid with the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - in "al-Jawhar al-Munadhdham" should be well known and most of his words regarding this issue are taken from different passages of the 8th chapter of "Shifa` al-Saqam". He also said:

فإن قلت : كيف تحكي الإجماع السابق على مشروعية الزيارة والسفر إليها وطلبها وابن تيمية من متأخري الحنابلة منكر لمشروعية ذلك كله ... قلت : من هو ابن تيمية حتى ينظر إليه أو يعول في شئ من أمور الدين عليه ؟ ! وهل هو إلا كما قال جماعة من الأئمة الذين تعقبوا كلماته الفاسدة ، وحججه الكاسدة ... عبد أضله الله تعالى وأغواه ، وألبسه رداء الخزي ... ولقد تصدى شيخ الإسلام ، وعالم الأنام ، المجمع على جلالته ، واجتهاده وصلاحه وإمامته ، التقي السبكي ، قدس الله روحه ، ونور ضريحه ، للرد عليه في تصنيف مستقل أفاد فيه وأجاد وأصاب وأوضح بباهر حججه طريق الصواب

“If you say: How can you relate that there is a consensus on the permissible and commendable status of visiting and travelling to it (the Prophet’s grave [sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam]) when ibn Taymiyya among the later Hanbalis deems all of this inappropriate?
I say: Who is ibn Taymiyya so that one takes his words into consideration or relies on them in any religious matter? Is he anything but – in the words of the leading scholars who have followed his rotten statements and unsalable arguments… – a servant whom Allah has forsaken and led astray and clothed in the garments of ignominy… The Shaykh al-Islam, the scholar of the world, concerning whose status, ijtihad, rectitude and prominence there is a consensus, Taqi al-Din al-Subki – may Allah sanctify his soul and cast light on his grave – has dedicated himself to answering him in a separate work (shifa al-saqam fi ziyarat khayr al-anam) in which he has done a great service and shown with dazzling arguments the correct path.”
Source: "Al-Jawhar al-Munadhdham"; translation taken from here: "Ibn Hajar al-Haytami on ibn Taymiyya’s View of Impermissibility on Travelling to Visit the Grave of the Prophet"

"From amongst the untruths of Ibn Taymiyya which no scholar before him had said, and whereby he created dissent between the people of Islām, is that he denounced tawassul and istighātha (seeking aid) through him ; and that is not as he had decreed (i.e. that it is impermissible). Rather, tawassul through him is hasan (good) in every state: before his creation and after his creation, in the dunya and in the ākhira.
That which proves seeking tawassul through him..."

Read the rest here:
Seeking Aid with the Prophet by Imām Ibn Hajar al-Haytamī
--

For those who understand Arabic I would recommend the following links where scholars of the 4 Madhahib are qouted regarding seeking intercession through the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam:

- Ruling according to the Hanafiyyah
- Ruling according to the Malikiyyah
- Ruling according to the Shafi'iyyah
- Ruling according to the Hanabilah

 ---



Comment:

----------------------
abu hamid said:
Bukhari Volume 5, Book 57, Number 59:
Narrated from Anas: Whenever there was drought, 'Umar bin Al-Khattab used to ask Allah for rain through Al'Abbas bin 'Abdul Muttalib, saying, "O Allah! We used to request our Prophet to ask You for rain, and You would give us. Now we we request the uncle of our Prophet to ask You for rain, so give us rain." And they would be given rain."
-------------------

The translation that I qouted is more accurate, because in the Arabic wording it does not say "inna kunna nastasqi bi Nabiyyina" rather it says "inna kunna natawassalu ilayka bi Nabiyyina", so translating it as "we would use our Prophet as a means to You" is nearer to the Arabic wording [of the narration that is found in Sahih al-Bukhari] than "we would request our Prophet to ask You for rain". (But the other wording can be found in a different version of the narration in other Hadith books.)

As for translating "inna kunna" as "we would use" or "we used to", then I don't see where exactly the difference between the two is, and what is important here is the Arabic wording anyways.

So what we understand is that in the past the Sahabah would make Tawassul with the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - in order to get rain, while in the above incident they made Tawassul with al-'Abbas, radhiallahu 'anhu.

Does that mean that since the death of the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - no one had taken him as means to his Lord or seeked blessings through him?

What about the time of the Khilafah of Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, radhiallahu 'anhu? Was there never a drought in his time?

- If it said "then why did 'Umar not make Tawassul with the Prophet in the above incident?... this shows that it's prohibited to do so...",

then the reply is:

This is not an argument at all, because from a Fiqhi point of view not doing something does not show it's prohibition (الترك لا يفيد التحريم).

-Imam Taqi al-Din al-Subki
(d. 756 AH) mentioned (see "Shifa`al-Saqam" p. 377) that in the Tawassul of 'Umar through al-'Abbas - may Allah be pleased with them - there is no denunciation [whatsoever] against performing Tawassul through the Prophet - sallallahu 'alahi wa sallam - or his grave. Thereafter he mentioned the following narration:

قحط أهل المدينة قحطا شديدا فشكوا إلى عائشة فقالت انظروا قبر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فاجعلوا منه كوى إلى السماء حتى لا يكون بينه وبين السماء سقف قال ففعلوا فمطرنا مطرا حتى نبت العشب وسمنت الإبل حتى تفتقت من الشحم فسمي عام الفتق

"The people of Medina were in the grip of a severe famine. They complained to ‘Ā’ishah (about their terrible condition). She told them to go towards the Prophet’s grave and open a window in the direction of the sky so that there is no curtain between the sky and the grave.
[The narrator (Abū al-Jawzā’ Aws bin ‘Abdullāh)] says they did so. Then it started raining heavily; even the lush green grass sprang up (everywhere) and the camels had grown so fat (it seemed) they would burst out due to the over piling of blubber. So the year was named as the year of greenery and plenty."


Source: "Sunan al-Darimi" and translation taken from here: Tawassul(Waseela)

And this incident shows how Allah ta'ala honoured his Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - even after his death (and this is how Imam al-Darimi (d. 255 AH) called the chapter).

It should be also noted that 'Uthman bin Hunayf - radhiallahu 'anhu - teached to a man in need to perform Tawassul with the Master of the first and last - sallallahu 'alayhi wa salam - and that was in the time of the Khilafah of 'Uthman bin 'Affan, radhiallahu 'anhu.

And in the narration of Malik al-Dar a man (it was mentioned that it was the companion Bilal bin al-Harith, radhiallahu 'anhu) went to the grave of the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - and asked him to supplicate for rain for his Ummah. After he had a dream he went to Sayyidina 'Umar - radhiallahu 'anhu - and told him what had happened. Why did he not say to him that he had committed "Shirk akbar"?

And this means:
You have not a single narration where anyone from Sahabah denounced Tawassul, while we have narrations where Sahabah did take Rasulullah - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - as a means to their Lord and seeked blessings through him. And for centuries none said anything against Tawassul and it got mentioned in the books without any objection whatsoever.

- Let's come back to the Tawassul through al-'Abbas, radhiallahu 'anhu:

And now think about this here: Who is greater in rank, 'Umar or al-'Abbas? 'Umar, because we know that the best of this Ummah after our Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - is Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, then 'Umar al-Faruq, then 'Uthman Dhul Nurayn and then 'Ali al-Murtadha - may Allah ta'ala be pleased with them all - as it was mentioned by Imam Ibn Qudamah (d. 620 AH) in his "Lum'at al-I'tiqad".

So why did they make Tawassul through al-'Abbas?

The obvious answer: Because he's the uncle of the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - and that's why 'Umar did not simply say "now we take al-'Abbas as a means to you", rather he said "now we take our Prophet's uncle as a means to you"!

So Tawassul through al-'Abbas goes in reality back to performing Tawassul through the Prophet!
And that's why when al-'Abbas supplicated he said "The people have turned to You by means of me because of my position in relation to your Prophet". So again the matter clearly goes back to the rank of Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam.

And the benefit from these narrations is what Imam Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani (d. 852 AH) said:

ويستفاد من قصة العباس استحباب الاستشفاع بأهل الخير والصلاح وأهل بيت النبوة ، وفيه فضل العباس وفضل عمر لتواضعه للعباس ومعرفته بحقه

"The benefit from this story regarding al-'Abbas is that it's desirable to seek intercession (Istishfa') through righteous people and the Prophet's family (Ahl al-Bayt), and in it is the merit of al-'Abbas and [also] the merit of 'Umar due to his humbleness before al-'Abbas and his recognition of his [due] right."

Source: "Fath al-Bari"

And we do not know a single scholar
prior to Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728 AH) who understood from the Tawassul through al-'Abbas that Tawassul through the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - is prohibited.

So this was simply an abnormal
(shadh) view. How is it now justified to take this view and try to force it upon the Ummah of Islam and make Takfir based upon it? What is this other innovation and misguidance?

- Add to this: Saying that Tawassul through the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - is prohibited while it's allowed with other than him, is a dangerous statement and not really respectful towards the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam -, because it's as if one is trying to deny his high rank and status with his Lord.
(Imam Taqi al-Din al-Hisni (d. 829 AH) even said in his "Daf' Shubah man shabbaha wa tamarrad" that this claim by Ibn Taymiyyah is disbelief.)

How could it be prohibited to take the Prophet
- sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - as a Wasilah (means) to our Lord while Sayyidina Adam - 'alayhi salam - performed Tawassul with our Prophet before he was even born?! (If anyone wants to doubt the authenticity of the narration, then let him read this here: "The Hadith Of Adam's tawassul through the Prophet")

And how could it be prohibited to take the Master of the first and last, the one who will intercede and whose intercession will be accepted, the one who has been sent as a mercy to mankind, the one whom the station of praise and glory has been given, as a means to one's Lord!?

(What makes this claim even worse is to allow it with other than him!)

In a narration in "Sahih al-Bukhari" it is mentioned that the people on the day of judgement will go to different Prophets and ask them for intercession by saying "intercede for us to your Lord" (
اشفع لنا إلى ربك), but none of them will intercede. At the end they will go to our Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - and ask him for intercession, then he will fall in prostration until he'll be given the permission to intercede.

So know and understand regarding whom you're talking and don't try to deny his rank and status.

by Abu Sulayman


(Edited by ADHM)