Tuesday, 9 November 2010

True Tawhid and Shirk

The Ash’arīs on True Tawhīd

Pure Monotheism
True Tawhid and Shirk 


Sheikh Safar Abd al-Rahman al-Hawali
Safar al-Hawali

The researcher said:
‘With respect to true tawīd and that which opposes it with respect to shirk, and knowing such shirk and cautioning against it, there is no absolute mention of it in their books of creed, and I don’t know where they have (addressed the issue)?
Is it in the books of furū? It is not in such books!
Or have they abandoned this cause altogether?
The latter is that of which I am certain’."
[end of quote]

I say:

Shaykh Salah al-Din al-Idlibi

'You alone we worship'!

Imam Fakhr Al-Dīn Al-Rāzī
also said:
His saying: ‘You alone we worship’ indicates that there is no other worshipped entity besides Allah; and since this is the case, it is clearly established that there is no god except Allah; and His saying ‘You alone we worship and You alone we seek for help’ indicates pure monotheism… Everyone who takes a partner with Allah will inevitably offer worship to that partner in certain aspects, either seeking its benefit, or escaping its harm. As for those who remain steadfast upon taw īd and deny that God has any partners or equals, and refrain from worshipping anything besides Allah, and pay heed to none but Allah, then their hope, fear, desire and awe is for Allah alone. Therefore there can be no doubt that they worship nonebut Allah, and seek the aid of none but Allah .
[1/244,245: Mafatih al-Ghayb] more info regarding (Imam Fakhr Al-Dīn Al-Rāzī ) :here

If you refer to the books of Al-Baqillani in creed, then you will find him explaining taw īd in terms of taw īd al-uluhiyya, when he says:

‘Taw īd means affirming that He is Absolutely Existing, One God, the Object of all worship, and there is nothing like unto Him’. He continues: ‘It is obligatory to know that the Almighty Creator of the World is One and Only; and this means that there is no god but Him, and there is none worthy of worship save Him alone’.6

Imam Nawawi (Allah have mercy on him) says about the expression La Ilaaha Illa Allah, ‘The best form of invocation after the Qur’an is La Ilaaha Illa Allah; and what this means is nothing is all existence is rightfully worshipped except Allah’7

The mufassir Abu ‘Abd Allah Al-Qurtubi Al-Ash’ari clearly enunciated this doctrine in the introduction to his book titled “Reflection upon the state of the deceased and the condition of the afterlife”, when he said: ‘May Allah make it purely for His pleasure… there is no lord but Him, and no entity worthy of worship but Him, Be He Glorified’.

Imam Al-Izz Ibn ‘Abd Al-Salam 
after mentioning the necessary attributes of Allah (Be He Glorified): ‘Verily, Divinity means the worthiness of being worshipped, and none deserves worship except the One who is described by all that we have mentioned’. He continued: ‘And none deserves status as God except the One who is described by all that we have resolutely affirmed’.8
more info regarding (Imam Al-Izz Ibn ‘Abd Al-Salam): Here

Imam Al-Sanusi (Allah have mercy on him) said:

There are six types of idolatry (shirk):

1) shirk implying autonomy, and that is the belief in two independent gods, as in the shirk of the Zoroastrians;
2) shirk of division, and that is the belief in a god made up of multiple gods, as in the shirk of the Christians;
3) shirk as a means of drawing close, and this entails worshipping other than Allah Almighty in order to draw near to Allah, as in the shirk of the ancient Arab polytheists;
4) shirk of imitation, and this entails worshiping other than Allah Almighty in blind following of others, as in the shirk of the later Arab polytheists;
5) shirk of causation, and this entails attributing normal causes other than Allah Almighty to natural phenomena, as in the shirk of philosophers and natural scientists and the students of such;
6) shirk of intention, and this entails working and striving for other than Allah Almighty. The first four are kufr by consensus (ijmā’); the sixth is sinful; judgment on the fifth depends on certain other considerations… 9

The first two types of shirk mentioned are at odds with taw īd al-rububiyyah, and they are the shirk implying autonomy and the shirk implying division.

The second two types of shirk are at odds with taw īd al-uluhiyyah, and they are the shirk as a means of drawing close and the shirk of imitation.

Al- Sanusi decided that the ruling of all these forms of shirk is kufr, and that such was by unanimous consent.
Al-Sanusi said:
The reality of the One God is that He the Necessary Being who deserves to be worshipped…and this means that nothing in existence is deserving of worship except for the One who is the Creator of the Universe (Majestic and Elevated be He)… because nothing deserves to be worshipped – meaning that all things humble themselves before it – save for He who is free of any need for all other beings beside Himself, and whom all other beings need. 10 (other Ref: Pdf)


What is Tawhid?

Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani (d.852 H) states:

وأما أهل السنة ففسروا التوحيد بنفي التشبيه والتعطيل، ومن ثم قال الجنيد فيما حكاه أبو القاسم القشيري ” التوحيد إفراد القديم من المحدث ” وقال أبو القاسم التميمي في ” كتاب الحجة ” التوحيد مصدر وحد يوحد، ومعنى وحدت الله اعتقدته منفردا بذاته وصفاته لا نظير له ولا شبيه، وقيل معنى وحدته علمته واحدا، وقيل سلبت عنه الكيفية والكمية فهو واحد في ذاته لا انقسام له، وفي صفاته لا شبيه له، في إلهيته وملكه وتدبيره لا شريك له ولا رب سواه ولا خالق غيره.وقال ابن بطال تضمنت ترجمة الباب أن الله ليس بجسم لأن الجسم مركب من أشياء مؤلفة وذلك يرد على الجهمية في زعمهم أنه جسم، كذا وجدت فيه ولعله أراد أن يقول المشبهة، وأما الجهمية فلم يختلف أحد ممن صنف في المقالات أنهم ينفون الصفات حتى نسبوا إلى التعطيل، وثبت عن أبي حنيفة أنه قال بالغ جهم في نفي التشبيه حتى قال إن الله ليس بشيء.

The orthodox ulama explained tawhid, (the uniqueness of God) to be the repudiation of the notion that Allah has any attribute which resembles the attributes of created things [which notion in Arabic is called tashbih], and of the notion that He does not possess those transcendent attributes which His perfection and majesty require [which notion in Arabic is called ta`til].
That is why al-Junayd (d. 297 H / 910 AD) in a report transmitted by al Qushayri [in his al-Risalah] said: “Al-Tawhid consists in maintaining the uniqueness of the Unoriginated [that is, the Eternal−Arabic: qadim] with respect to the originated [Arabic−hadith].”
Abu Qasim al-Tamimi said in his book al-Hujjah:
Al-Tawhid is the verbal noun [Arabic −masdar] from which the past verb wahhada, and the present verb yuwahhidu are derived. The meaning of the sentence Wahhattu Allah is I`taqttu Allah munfaridan [that is, I declared (or maintained) categorically that Allah is unique] in His person (dhat), and that in respect of His attributes (sifat) He has no likeness nor resemblance.]” However, it has also been said that it means: “I acknowledge that He is one”, and likewise, that it means: “I deny Him all quality and quantity; for He is one in His Essence, indivisible; and one in His attributes; there is nothing which is like Him. He has no associate in His divinity, dominion, and providence. There is no other Lord than He, and no other Creator.”
Ibn Battal said: “The title that al-Bukhari has given the chapter [in his hadith collection called al-Sahih] implies that Allah is not a body because bodies are compounded of parts put together.” [Fath al-Bari, (Beirut: Dar al-Ma`rifah), p. 344, vol. 14.]
Imam Muhammad al-Sanusi (d. 895 H) said in the commentary upon his al-Barahin,
The establishment of the divinity of our Master the Majestic and Mighty with every reasonable person is undisputable. However, disbelief occurs when an additional deity is added. If other deities are added then negation of the deities that have been added to Allah ta`ala is required. This is how the science of Divine Unity (al-tawhid) came into being, so consider that.[Nur as-Sa`ada]

Imam al-Bayjurî (d. 1277 H) said:
It is to single-out al-Ma’bûd (the One to be worshipped – i.e. Allâh) with worship, along with belief and affirmation in the oneness and uniqueness of His Dhât (Essence), Sifât (Attributes) and Actions.[Tuhfat al-Murid ala Jawharah Al-Tawhid]

Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani

on Attributing the Direction Aboveto Allah

al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar states in Fath al-bari:
ولا يلزم من كون جهتي العلو والسفل محال على الله أن لا يوصف بالعلو لأن وصفه بالعلو من جهة المعنى والمستحيل كون ذلك من جهة الحس، ولذلك ورد في صفته العالي والعلي والمتعالي ولم يرد ضد ذلك وإن كان قد أحاط بكل شيء علما جل وعز
The fact that the two directions of “above” ['uluw] and “below” are inapplicable and impossible for Allah does not preclude His being described with the attribute of elevation (`uluw), for such description is only from the standpoint of the meaning of elevation, not that of sensory perception. And this is stated in the case of His attributes of al-`Aali and al-`Ali and al-Muta’ali and not the opposites of these and his knowledge encompasses everything, Azza wa Jal.
Elsewhere Ibn Hajar says:
قال الكرماني قوله ‏”‏ في السماء ‏”‏ ظاهره غير مراد، إذ الله منزه عن الحلول في المكان، لكن لما كانت جهة العلو أشرف من غيرها أضافها إليه إشارة إلى علو الذات والصفات،
Al-Kirmani said: “The outward meaning [dhahirahu] of the saying: “He Who is in the heaven” (man fi al-sama’) is not meant. Allah is transcendent above immanence and place. However, because the direction of aboveness [jiha al-uluw] is nobler than any other direction, Allah linked it to Him to indicate the loftiness of the Essence and the Attributes.
And again, the Imam says:
وقد حكى البيهقي عن أبي بكر الضبعي قال‏:‏ العرب تضع ‏”‏ في ‏”‏ موضع ‏”‏ على ‏”‏ كقوله ‏(‏فسيحوا في الأرض‏)‏ وقوله ‏(‏ولأصلبنكم في جذوع النخل‏)‏ فكذلك قوله ‏(‏من في السماء‏)‏ أي على العرش فوق السماء كما صحت الأخبار بذلك‏
إلا حديث ابن عباس فليس فيه إلا قوله ‏”‏ رب العرش ‏”‏ ومطابقته والله أعلم من جهة أنه نبه على بطلان قول من أثبت الجهة أخذا من قوله ‏(‏ذي المعارج‏)‏ ففهم أن العلو الفوقي مضاف إلى الله تعالى، فبين المصنف أن الجهة التي يصدق عليها أنها سماء والجهة التي يصدق عليها أنها عرش كل منهما مخلوق مربوب محدث، وقد كان الله قبل ذلك وغيره، فحدثت هذه الأمكنة، وقدمه يحيل وصفه بالتحيز فيها والله أعلم‏.‏
Bayhaqi mentioned Abu Bakr al-Dab`i’s saying that the Arabs use “in” (fi) in place of “over,” as in Allah’s saying: “Roam over (fi) the earth” and “I shall crucify you over (fi) the trunks of the palm-trees.
Likewise, Dab`i says, “In the heaven” means “Over the Throne above the heaven, as stated in the sound reports [...] And by including the hadith of Ibn `Abbas containing the words: “Lord of the mighty Throne” into this chapter, Bukhari warned those that might predicate spatial elevation to Allah (`uluw fawqi) that both the direction in which the heaven is believed to be and that in which the Throne is believed to be are created, lorded over, and brought into existence by Allah Who existed before all that and before everything else. Thus these places were created, and his existence, being eternal without beginning, precludes reference to him as being bounded by them.

Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani on the Hadith of Descent

The hadith of descent from Sahih Al-Bukhari:
Abdullah bin Maslamah narrates from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Abu Salamah and Abdullah Algharr both of whom narrate from Abu Huraira that:
The Messenger of Allah
صلى الله عليه وسلم

‘Our Lord, the Blessed, the Superior, descends every night to the nearest Heaven when the last third of the night remains, saying: “Is there anyone to invoke Me, so that I may respond to invocation? Is there anyone to ask Me, so that I may grant him his request? Is there anyone seeking My forgiveness, so that I may forgive him?”‘

Ibn Hajar’s comments from Fath al-Bari :

Those who assert direction for Allah have used this hadith as proof that He is in the direction of above-ness (uluww). The vast majority of the scholars reject this, because saying such leads to establishing boundaries for Him and Allah is exalted above that.
And so there is disagreement regarding the meaning of ‘Nuzool’ upon the [following] sayings (i.e. of the scholars):
· So from them are those who hold that that it is upon its Thaahir (apparent) and its Haqeeqi (real literal) meaning, and they are the Mushabbihah (those who make tashbeeh which is to liken Allah to his creation), exalted is Allah from their sayings.

· Some reject the validity of the ahadith cited in that chapter altogether. These are the Khawarij and the Mutazila and this view is highly contentious. What is strange is that they interpret figuratively what is related to this in the Qur’an, but they reject what is in the ahadith either out of ignorance or out of obstinacy.

· Some have taken them as they have come, believing in them without specificity, declaring Allah to be transcendent above modality (kayfiyya) and likeness to creation (tashbih): these are the vast majority of the Salaf. That position is reported by Al-Bayhaqi and others from the four Imams, Sufyan ibn ‘Uyayna, Sufyan Ath-Thawri, Hammad ibn Salama, Hammad ibn Zayd, Al-Awza’i, Al-Layth, and others.

· Some interpreted them in a way that befits the linguistic usage of the Arabs.
· Some have over-interpreted them to the point that they almost tampered with the text (tahrif).

· Some have made a difference between a kind of interpretation that is likely and current in the linguistic usage of the Arabs, and another kind which is far-fetched and archaic, interpreting in the former case and committing the meaning to Allah in the latter. [I.e. if the Arabic equivalent is sensible and befitting to Allah's majesty it would be accepted but if the Arabic usage opposes the majesty of Allah then tafwid is practised]. This is reported from Malik, and among the later scholars (mutaakhkhirun) it is asserted decisively by Ibn Daqiq al-’Id.

Imam Al-Bayhaqi said:

“The safest method is to believe in them without modality, and to maintain concerning what is meant except if the explanation is conveyed from the Prophet himself, in which case it is followed.” The proof for this is the agreement of the scholars that the specific interpretation is not obligatory, and that therefore the commitment of meaning to Allah (tafwid) is the safest option.

Imam al-Bayhaqi said:
قال البيهقي ذهب بعض أهل النظر إلى أن اليد صفة ليست جارحة وكل موضع جاء ذكرها في الكتاب أو السنة الصحيحة فالمراد تعلقها بالكائن المذكور معها كالطي والأخذ والقبض والبسط والقبول والشح والانفاق وغير ذلك تعلق الصفة بمقتضاها من غير مماسة وليس في ذلك تشبيه بحال وذهب آخرون إلى تأويل ذلك بما يليق به انتهى
Some of the theologians were of the view that ‘yad’ is an attribute that is not a limb, and that in every place in the Book and the authentic Sunna where it is mentioned, what is meant is its linkage [ta'alluq] with the thing mentioned along with it, such as ‘folding up’, ‘taking’, ‘grasping’, ‘outstretching’, ‘accepting’, ‘avarice’, and spending, and other examples. All of these are [examples of] the linkage of the attribute to that which it entails, without any spatial contact; and in no way does this contain any resemblance [tashbih]. And yet others were of the view that this should be given a figurative interpretation in a manner that befits Him.
[Source: Fath al-Bari, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani]
Ref/more info: Here

SaˆdudDiin Al-Taftaazaaniy

(b.712-d.793AH/ 1312-1390 AD),

Sa'ad al-Din Masud ibn Umar ibn Abd Allah al-Taftazani also known as Al-Taftazani and Taftazani (1312– 1390AD)

He also wrote a commentary on the Qur'an in Persian called "Kashf-al-Asrar" and translated the Persian poetry and prose of Saadi into Turkic.

Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani famously remarked about him that "science ended with him in the East" and "no one could ever replace him", due to the Mongol invasion of Central Asia, which ended the Islamic Golden Age. He died in Samarkand in 1390 and was buried in Sarakhs. He sincerely practiced Islam, and practiced and preached in the Hanafi and Maturidi schools. He was of the Hanafi school in matters of Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) and a Maturidi with regard to issues of Aqidah.

Sħarĥu-l-Maqaaşid Fiy ˆIlmi-l-Kalaam, 2/514

At-Taftaazaaniyy states: “The belief of Ahlu-s-Sunnah is that the world has a beginning, and that the Creator is beginninglessly eternal, attributed with beginninglessly eternal attributes that are not Him himself, nor other than Him1. Moreover, He is One, He has no like or opposite, or equal. He has no end, or shape, or limit. He is not in something, and nothing begins to exist in Him (i.e. He does not change) and it is invalid (i.e. intrinsically impossible) that He could move, or be transported, or be ignorant, or lie, or have a defect. In addition, He is seen in the Hereafter, but He is not in a space, or in a direction. Whatever He has willed will be, and what He has not willed will not be. He does not need anything, and He has no obligations.”

1 I.e. it is impossible in the mind’s eye that they could be separated from Him – because they are eternally attributes of His, and what is eternal cannot change.
شرح المقاصد فى علم الكلام ، 2 / 514
وطريقة أهل السنة أن العالم حادث والصانع قديم متصف بصفات قديمة ليست عينه ولا غيره وواحد لا شبه له ولا ضد ولا ند ولا نهاية له ولا صورة ولا حد ولا يحل في شيء ولا يقوم به حادث ولا يصح عليه الحركة والانتقال ولا الجهل ولا الكذب ولا النقص وأنه يرى في الآخرة وليس في حيز ولا جهة ما شاء كان ومالم يشأ لم يكن لا يحتاج إلى شيء ولا يجب عليه شيء
شرح المقاصد في علم الكلام ، اسم المؤلف: سعد الدين مسعود بن عمر بن عبد الله التفتازاني الوفاة: 791هـ ، دار النشر : دار المعارف النعمانية – باكستان – 1401هـ – 1981م ، الطبعة : الأولى

Imam Abu Hanifa (d. 150AH) says in his Wasiyya:

"Had He been in a place and needing to sit and rest before creating the Throne, then the question:

'Where was Allah?' would have applied to Him, which is impossible... We assert that Allah is established on the throne without His need (haja) nor settlement (istiqrar) upon it, for He it is Who preserves the Throne and other than it without needing any of them."
Abu Hanifa, Wasiyyat al-imam al-a`zam Abu Hanifa, ed. Fu'ad `Ali Rida (Beirut : Maktabat al-Jamahir, 1970) p. 10.


"If someone says, 'Where is Allah?' The answer for him is that Allah existed when there was no 'where,' no creation, nothing. And He is the Creator of everything."

al-Nasàfi's Matn al-Manàr fï Usul al-Fiqh, Cairo: al-Matba'at al-Mahmudiyya, 1326):

"...on the Throne without his having need for it and without settlement on it as He is the Preserver of the Throne and other than the Throne."


The word Shirk

The well-authenticated (hasan) hadith related from Aisha (Allah be well pleased with her) by al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلمsaid,

Shirk (polytheism) is more hidden in my Umma than the creeping of ants across a great smooth stone on a black night . . . (Nawadir al-usul fi marifa ahadith al-Rasul. Istanbul 1294/1877. Reprint. Beirut: Dar Sadir, n.d., 399).

This hadith has been used by sects from the times of the historical Wahhabi movement down to the present to convince common people that the majority of Muslims may not actually be Muslims at all, but rather mushrikin or polytheists, and that those who do not subscribe to the views of their sheikhs may be beyond the pale of Islam.

In reply, traditional scholars point out that the words fi Ummati, "in my Umma" in the hadith plainly indicate that what is meant here is the lesser shirk of certain sins that, though serious, do not entail outright unbelief.

For the word shirk or polytheism has two meanings.

The first is the greater polytheism of worshipping others with Allah, of which Allah says in surat al-Nisa, { Truly, Allah does not forgive that any should be associated with Him [in worship], but forgives what is other than that to whomever He wills.} Quran 4:48, and this is the shirk of unbelief.

The second is the lesser polytheism of sins that entail shortcomings in one's tawhid or knowledge of the divine unity, but do not entail leaving Islam.

Examples include affection towards someone for the sake of something that is wrongdoing (called shirk because one hopes to benefit from what Allah has placed no benefit in), or disliking someone because of something that is right (called shirk because one apprehends harm from what Allah has placed benefit in), or the sin of showing off in acts of worship, as mentioned in the sahih or rigorously authenticated hadith that the
Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, The slightest bit of showing off in good works is shirk
(al-Mustadrak ala al-Sahihayn. 4 vols. Hyderabad, 1334/1916. Reprint (with index vol. 5). Beirut: Dar al-Marifa, n.d.,1.4). Such sins do not put one outside of Islam, though they are disobedience and do show a lack of faith (iman).

Scholars say that the lesser shirk of such sins is meant by the hadith, for if the greater shirk of unbelief were intended, the Prophet http://www.livingislam.org/durood.gif would not have referred to such individuals as being in my Umma, since unbelief (kufr) is separate and distinct from Islam, and necessarily outside of it.

This is also borne out by another version of the hadith related from Abu Bakr (Nawadir al-usul, 397), which has fikum or "among you" in place of the words "in my Umma", a direct reference to the Sahaba or prophetic Companions, none of whom was a mushrik or idolator, by unanimous consensus (ijma) of all Muslim scholars.
As for sins of lesser shirk, it cannot be lost on anyone why their hiddenness is compared in the hadith to the imperceptible creeping of ants across a great smooth stone on a black night; namely, because of the subtlety of human motives, and the ease with which human beings can deceive themselves.

Similarly, al-Bukhari relates that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلمsaid,
"Truly, you shall follow the ways of those who were before you, span by span, and cubit by cubit, until, if they were to enter a lizards lair, you would follow them."
We said, "O Messenger of Allah, the Jews and Christians?" And he said, "Who else?"
(Sahih al-Bukhari. 9 vols. Cairo 1313/1895. Reprint (9 vols. in 3).
( Beirut: Dar al-Jil, n.d., 9.126: 7320).

This hadith is also used by modern movements claiming to be a return to the Quran and sunna, to suggest that the majority of ordinary Sunni Muslims who follow the aqida (tenets of faith) or fiqh of mainstream orthodox Sunni Imams (whose classic works seldom fully correspond with their views) are intended by this hadith, while there is much evidence that the orthodox majority of the Umma is divinely protected from error, such as the sahih hadith related by al-Hakim that:

"Allah's hand is over the group, and whoever diverges from them diverges to hell" (al-Mustadrak, 1.116).

Such hadiths show that Quranic verses like { If you obey most of those on earth, they will lead you astray from the path of Allah.} (Quran, 6:116) do not refer to those who follow traditional Islamic scholarship (who have never been a majority of those on earth), but rather the non-Muslim majority of mankind.

It is fitter to regard the previously-mentioned hadiths wording of following the Jews and Christians as referring, in our times, to the Muslims who copy the West in all aspects of their lives, rational and irrational, even to the extent of building banks in Muslim cities and holy places never before sullied by usury (riba) on an institutional basis since pre-Islamic times.
Or those who promote divisive sectarian ideologies under the guise of reform movements among the Muslims, as the Jews and Christians did in their respective religions.

Traditional scholarship is protected from such misguidance by the authentic knowledge it has preserved, living teacher from living teacher, in unbroken succession back to the Pصلى الله عليه وسلم

Is Studying Hadith From 
Al-Bukhari And Muslim 
on Your Own Advised?

Read the full article Here
Narrated Uqba:

One day the Prophet went out and offered the (funeral) prayer for the people (i.e. martyrs) of Uhud as he used to offer a funeral prayer for any dead person, and then (after returning) he ascended the pulpit and said, "I am your predecessor before you, and I am a witness upon you, and I am looking at my Tank just now, and I have been given the keys of the treasures of the world (or the keys of the world). By Allah, I am not afraid that you will worship others besides Allah after me, but I am afraid that you will compete with each other for (the pleasures of) this world."
[Sahih Bukhari: Volume 5, Book 59, Number 411] Also see [Muslim, Al-Nisa`i, Abu-Dawud, Ahmed b. Hanbal]



Who made the 

Division of Tawhid?

The problem is not the usage of words like Rububiyyah and Uluhiyyah, but rather to make a strict division of Tawhid into three and build Ahkam (rulings) based upon it.

This is exactly what Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728 AH) did and this is nothing but an innovation!
The problem with this innovation is not just that it later on (i.e. in the time of the bloodthirsty criminal Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab (d. 1206 AH)) lead to completely unjustified Takfir and the spilling of blood of many many Muslims on the Arabian peninsula and the regions around it, but also that it leads to ignorance regarding real Tawhid.

 The people who follow this innovation are so obsessed about secondary issues, that they've forgotten what actually Tawhid is.

 Let them read Surat al-Ikhlas and ponder about it and then ask themselves why the Tawhid in the Qur`an al-karim is different from the so called "Tawhid" that ibn abdul Wahab Najdi blind followers teach them.

by Abu Sulayman