Saturday, 13 November 2010

The Imam of Ibn Taymiyyah



The Sources of Ibn Taymiyyah's Ideas!

Bedrock of Wahhabi/Salafi Aqeedah

al-Naqd `ala al-jahmiyya
&
Kitab al-sunna

`Uthman Ibn Sa`id al-Darimi al-Sajzi
(d. 280AH)

Note:
(Not `Abd Allah ibn `Abd al-Rahman al-Darimi, author of the Sunan, who died in 255AH)

Uthman Ibn Sa`id al-Darimi al-Sajzi
He is said by some biographers to have studied with Ahmad, al-Buyuti, Yahya ibn Ma`in, and Ibn al-Madini.
However, he is never mentioned in the Six Books of traditions, which points to problems concerning his person, in view of the teachers he is said to have studied with. He wrote his books against Bishr al-Marisi and the Jahmiyya at large. In his fervour to refute their excessive figurative interpretations, he fell into the opposite extreme of anthropomorphism illustrated by the excerpts of Kitab al-sunna quoted after the section below.


The Sources of Ibn Taymiyya's Ideas!

One also wonders why Ibn Taymiyya would take up arguments originally meant for Jahmis, who were heretics, and redirect them to the Ash`aris, who are the Ahl al-Sunna.

`Uthman ibn Sa`id al-Darimi
Here are some examples of what his book:
al-Naqd `ala al-jahmiyya
(The critique of the Jahmis)
p. 20:
"The Living, the Self-Subsistent, does what He wills, moves if He so wills, descends and ascends if He wills, collects and spreads and rises and sits if He wills, for the distinguishing mark between the living and the dead is movement: every living thing moves without fail, and every dead thing is immobile without fail. "

`Uthman ibn Sa`id al-Darimi, Kitab al-naqd `ala al-jahmiyya (Cairo, 1361/1942).
In this phrase the author has compared Allah to every living thing, although nothing is like Him whatsoever.
p. 23:
"Those who object claim that Allah has no limit, no boundary, and no end, and this is the principle upon which Jahm has built all of his heresy and from which he has carved his falsehoods; these are statements that we have never heard anyone say before him... Allah certainly has a limit... and so has His place, for He is on His Throne above the heavens, and these are two limits. Any person who declares that Allah has a limit and that His place has a limit, is more knowledgeable than the Jahmis. "
In these statements we see that al-Darimi considers Imam al-Shafi`i a Jahmi, since the latter explicitly stated:
"Know that limit and finiteness do not apply to Allah."


al-Shafi`i, al-Fiqh al-akbar fi al-tawhid li al-imam Abi `Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi`i, 1st ed. (al-Azbakiyya, Cairo: al-matba`a al-adabiyya, 1324/1906 or 1907) p. 8. The original manuscript of this work is kept at the Zahiriyya Library in Damascus, Ms. #Q-2(3).


Excerpts from `Uthman Ibn Sa`id al-Darimi al-Sajzi's book:

al-Naqd `ala al-Jahmiyya

p. 25:
"He created Adam by touching him (masisan)."

p. 75:
"If He so willed, He could have settled on the back of a gnat and it would have carried Him thanks to His power and the favor of His lordship, not to mention the magnificient Throne."



One of the greatest indications of Ibn Taymiyya's Anthropomorphist views is that in advocating the interpretation of istiwa' as istiqrar or settling -- absolutely condemned by the Salaf, as we mentioned -- he does not hesitate to reproduce the above statement verbatim. It is ironic that he does so in his Ta'sis, an attack on al-Razi for a book the latter wrote in refutation of Anthropomorphists. 

[Ibn Taymiyya, al-Ta'sis fi al-radd `ala asas al-taqdis 1:568.]



p. 79:
"He is distinguished from His creation and above His Throne with a patent distance in between the two, with the seven heavens between Him and His creatures on earth."


p. 92 and 182:



"If the Lord sits on the chair or foot-stool (kursi), a kind of groaning is heard similar to that of the new camel saddle. This is because of the pressure of Allah's Essence on top of it."



(al-Ta'sis fi al-radd `ala asas al-taqdis 1:568.)

`Abd Allah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 290AH): He wrote a book which he named Kitab al-sunna, but whose stand in relation to the Sunna and anthropomorphism can be judged by the following excerpts:

p. 5: "Is istiwa other than by sitting (julus)?"


p. 35:


"He saw Him on a chair of gold carried by four angels: one in the form of a man, another in the form of a lion, another in that of a bull, and another in that of an eagle, in a green garden, outside of which there was a golden dais."


(Kitab al-sunna (Cairo: al-Matba`a al-Salafiya, 1349/1930).

---

Hafiz Ibn Kathir writes

that ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abbas (Allah be well pleased with him) narrates that the meaning of the word Kursi in this verse is the Knowledge of Allah Most High, and His Knowledge encompasses the earth. Another opinion is that the Kursi is a creation of Allah Most High whose magnitude makes that of the heavens and the earth insignificant. Another opinion is, that due to the Throne praising Allah Most High it makes a “creaking” sound. This hadith has been recorded in many books, but in the chain of narrators, a narrator is unknown and therefore this narration cannot be authentic.


[Tafsir Ibn Kathir: Under Ayat al-Kursi. Hafiz Ibn Kathir]


Someone Forged this Anthropomorphic tract called
"Kitab al-sunna"
[The book of the sunna]

and put the name of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal’s son Abdullah on it.
It was published in two volumes in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, by Ibn al-Qayyim Publishing House, in 1986CE.
---

Abu Ya`la's
"Tabaqat"
in his biography of al-Istakhri, and falsely attributed to Imam Ahmad.
On p. 68:
"Verily Allah did not touch with His hand except Adam, whom He created with His own hand, Paradise, the Torah, which He wrote with His own hand, and a pearl which He wrought with His own hand, then dipped into it a stick to which He said: Stretch thyself as far as I please and bring out what is in thee with My leave, and so it brought out the rivers and the vegetation."
p. 70: "If the Lord sits on the chair or foot-stool (kursi), a kind of groaning is heard similar to that of the new camel saddle." 

Ibn Sa`id al-Darimi
Also endorses this, the previous, and the next view in his book:
On p.71:
"Allah sits on the kursi and there remains only four spans vacant."
Al-Khallal (d. 310AH), one of Imam Ahmad's companions, repeats it countlessly in his Kitab al-sunna, attributing it to Mujahid, and declares anyone who denies it to be a jahmi kafir zindiq.
(al-Khallal, al-Sunna p. 215-216.)
Ibn al-Qayyim
Endorses it unreservedly in his Bada'i` al-fawa'id,3 and the grammarian and commentator Abu Hayyan al-Andalusi relates the same about Ibn Taymiyya in his
Tafsir al-nahr al-madd min al-bahr al-muhit
(The commentary of the river extending from the ocean):
"I have read in a book by our contemporary Ahmad ibn Taymiyya written in his own hand and which he entitled Kitab al-`arsh (The Book of the Throne):
"Allah the Exalted sits (yajlisu) on the kursi, and He has left a space vacant for the Prophet to sit with Him."
Taj al-Din Muhammad ibn `Ali al-Barnibari tricked him into thinking that he was supporting him until he obtained that book from him and we read this in it."4

3
Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Bada'i` al-fawa'id (Misr: al-Matba`a al-Muniriya, 1900?) 4:39-40.
4 Abu Hayyan, Tafsir al-nahr al-madd 1:254 (Ayat al-kursi).

Ibn Khuzayma (d. 311AH)
He wrote a large volume which he named Kitab al-tawhid (Book of the declaration of oneness),7 which he later regretted having authored, as established by two reports cited by Bayhaqi with their chains of transmission.8

Ibn Khuzayma
cites, as a proof for establishing that Allah has a foot and other limbs, the verse: "Have they feet wherewith they walk or have they hands wherewith they hold, or have they eyes wherewith they see, or have they ears wherewith they hear?" (7:195).
This contravenes the sound position of the Salaf expressed by al-Muqri as related by Abu Dawud in his Sunan: "Allah hears and sees" means:
He has the power of hearing and seeing (not the organs)."11

7 Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Khuzayma, Kitab al-tawhid wa-ithbat sifat al-rabb allati wasafa biha nafsahu... (Cairo: idarat al-tiba`a al-muniriyya, 1354/1935).
8 Bayhaqi, al-Asma' wa al-sifat, ed. Kawthari, p. 267.
11 Abu Dawud, Sunan, Kitab al-Sunna, ch. 19, last hadith.
---
As we have seen these sources have little to do with the established position of Imam Ahmad on these questions. On the contrary, we know with certainty that Imam Ahmad irrevocably condemned the slightest ascription of a body to Allah, whether or not the speaker added: "but not like other bodies."

---


Imam al-Bayhaqi (384-458H)

Relates that he said:

"A person commits an act of disbelief (kufr) if he says Allah is a body, even if he says: Allah is a body but not like other bodies." He continues: "The expressions are taken from language and from Islam, and linguists applied "body" to a thing that has length, width, thickness, form, structure and components. The expression has not been handed down in Shari`a. Therefore, it is invalid and cannot be used."

[ al-Bayhaqi, Manaqib Ahmad. Unpublished manuscript.]


Ibn Hajar
"They ascertained that he had blurted out certain words concerning doctrine which came out of his mouth in the context of his sermons and legal decisions, and they mentioned that he had cited the hadith of Allah's descent, then climbed down two steps from the minbar and said: "Just like this descent of mine" and he was categorized as an anthropomorphist."
[ Ibn Hajar, al-Durar 1:153.]

Ibn Taymiyya
Ibn Taymiyya's conception of Allah's bodily descent is also stated in his own writings, as shown from the following excerpt from his al-Ta'sis fi al-radd `ala asas al-taqdis, written as a refutation of Imam al-Razi who was a fierce enemy of the Karramiyya and other anthropomorphists:
The Creator, Glorified and Exalted is He, is above the world and His being above is literal, not in the sense of dignity or rank. It may be said of the precedence of a certain object over another that it is with respect to dignity or rank, or that it is with respect to location. For example, respectively: the precedence of the learned over the ignorant and the precedence of the imam over the one praying behind him. Allah's precedence over the world is not like that, rather, it is a literal precedence (i.e. in time). Similarly the elevation above the world could be said to be with respect to dignity or rank, as for example when it said that the learned is above the ignorant. But Allah's elevation over the world is not like that, rather He is elevated over it literally (i.e. in space). And this is the known elevation and the known precedence
(Ibn Taymiyya, al-Ta'sis al-radd `ala asas al-taqdis 1:111.)


Ibn Taymiyya establishes a clear-cut case of tamthil or similitude for Allah and His attributes by comparing Him to the moon in his interpretation of the verse 57:4:
"He is with you wherever you are":
The phrase "and He is with you" does not mean that He blends into creation... Nay the moon... one of the smallest of Allah's creations, is both placed in the heaven (mawdu`un fi al-samaa') and present with the traveler and the non-traveler wherever they may be. And the Exalted is above (fawq) the Throne, as a watchful guardian of His creatures and their protector Who is cognizant of them.
(Ibn Taymiyya, al-`Aqida al-wasitiyya (Salafiyya ed. 1346 / 1927) p. 20)

In the 'Ta'sis'
he says this:
"Indeed 'al-`arsh' (the throne) in language means 'al-sarir' [elevated seat or couch], so named with respect to what is on top of it (wa dhalika bi al-nisba ila ma fawqihi), just as 'the roof' is so named with respect to what is under it (ka al- saqfi bi al-nisba ila ma tahtihi). Therefore, if the Qur'an attributes a throne to Allah -- which is not like a roof with respect to Him (but the reverse) -- it is then known that this throne is, with respect to Allah, like the elevated seat is with respect to other than Allah. And this makes it necessarily true that He is on top of the throne (wa dhalika yaqtadi annahu fawqu al-`arsh)."



So then the Throne is, for Ibn Taymiyya, the seat (maq`ad) of Allah the Exalted -

- Exalted is He from such a thing!

In the same book he also says:
"It is well-known that the Book, the Sunna, and the Consensus (of scholars) nowhere say that all bodies are created (lam tantiq bi anna al-ajsama kullaha muhdathatun), nor that Allah Himself is not a body (wa annallaha laysa bi jismin). None of the imams of the Muslims ever said such a thing. Therefore if I also choose not to say it, it does not expel me from religion nor from shari`a."

Indeed the above is complete impudence. What did he do with all the verses declaring Allah to be far removed from having anything like unto Him?
Does he expect that the idiocy that every single idiot can come up with be addressed with a specific text?
Is it not enough that Allah the Exalted said: "Nothing is like unto Him" (42:11)? Or does he consider it permissible for someone to say: Allah eats this, and chews that, and tastes the other thing, just because no text mentions the opposite?
Now this is disbelief laid bare (al-kufr al-makshuf) and pure anthropomorphism (wa al-tajsim al sareeH).

Ibn Taymiyyah approves of the claim that Aļļaah sits
Ibn Taymiyyah condones of the claim that Aļļaah sits saying: “It has been narrated through the acceptable scholars and Muslim saints (‘awliyaa’) that Muĥammad, the Messenger of Aļļaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم will be seated by His Lord on His throne with Him. 1
قال ابن تيمية في مجموع الفتاوى – (4 / 374) فَقَدْ حَدَثَ الْعُلَمَاءُ الْمَرْضِيُّونَ وَأَوْلِيَاؤُهُ الْمَقْبُولُونَ : أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يُجْلِسُهُ رَبُّهُ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ مَعَهُ .
[1 Aĥmad Ibn Taymiyyah (728 AH) Al-Ĥarraaniyy, Majmuuˆu-l-Fataawaa, 4 / 374.]
Regarding Ibn Taymiyyah’s extremely blasphemous anthropomorphism, which includes affirming 6 physical boundaries, divisibility in the mind’s eye due to size, ability to shrink, possibility of being hit by a bucket, having the world physically inside of Him, and more...
All of this, of course, he claims is affirmed by the Qur’aan and the Sunnah and the Salaf and Muslim saints!
Such statements of his are buried in ridiculously long books saying very much about very little, and that is why some scholars did not discover him, and praised him based on other things.
Those who did discover him, however, such as Taqiyyu-d-Diin Al-Ĥuşniyy, the famous Shaafiˆiyy jurist and author of the widely studied fiqh manual “Kifaayatu-l-’Akħyaar” called him “an absolute kaafir (zindiiq – which originally means fire worshiper, but later used to mean a particularly mean kaafir),” and alluded to how he considered having his remains extracted from his grave and burned in public as an admonition to the public.

Ibn al Qayyim
said in his book:
'Badaa'i` al-Fu'aad' (4:40):
"The hadith about the intercession of Ahmad is upon the authority of Ahmad al-Mustafa (s) himself, and the hadith of his being made to sit on the Throne has also come to us, so we do not reject it (hadeethu al-shafaa`ati `an aHmad ila aHmad al-muSTafa musnaduhu wa jaa'a al-Hadeethu bi iq`adihi `ala al-`arshi ayDan fa la najHaduhu)."


Related to The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him)

"Sitting by His side on the Throne"
Ibn `Uthaymeen says,in his own words:

"The proof that Allah is (directly) in front of the person who prays is the Prophet's (s) saying: If one of you stands in prayer, let him not spit in front of him (qibala wajhihi) for Allah is in front of him (fa inna Allaha qibala wajhihi)'; and so this confrontation (muqaabala) is established for Allah literally (thaabitatun lillahi Haqeeqatan), in the way that befits Him. Nor does it contradict His elevation (`uluwwahu), for what reconciles the two matters is that with respect to the creature (fi Haqq al-makhlooq) both can be put together, just as the sun at its rising (kama law kaanat al-shamsu `inda Tuloo`iha) is facing him who faces the East (fa innaha qibalu wajhi man istaqbala al-mashriq), at the same time being in the heaven (wa hiya fi al-samaa'). And if this is true for created things, then it is more rightfully so for the Creator."

(‘SharH al-`aqeedah al-waasiTiyya' p. 44)
---
It is possible to force upon him the proof (based on his own words) that the external meaning (zaahir) of Allah's words: "Prostrate thyself, and draw near (unto Allah)" (96:19) indicates physical proximity. But no rational person can say that such a meaning is meant here, for when the person at prayer prostrates, he does not draw near to a body nor to Allah's body! This proves that the proximity in question is that of His mercy (al-iqtiraab iqtiraabu raHmatih), and that the words "in front of him" in the above hadith mean that Allah is looking over him and taking account of his works (Allah naaziruhu wa muHSi `alayhi a`maalahu).

From 'Daf` al-shubuhaat `an al-Shaykh Muhammad al-Ghazali'
[The Refutation of False Arguments Made Against the Shaykh Muhammad al- Ghazali] (Cairo: Maktabat al-kulliyyaat al-azhariyya, 1410/1990) p. 58-59.
---

Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya
said in his
Bada’i‘ al-Fawa’id:

Al-Qadi [Ibn Abi Ya‘la] said:
“Al-Marwazi compiled a book on the superlative merits of the Prophet (s) in which he mentioned his seating (iq‘âduhu) on the Throne (al-‘arsh).”

Ibn al-Qayyim’s report that this was the position of al-Tabari suggests that he and al-Qurtubi’s were looking at a common source and that al-Tabari held two opinions on the question, one in support of Mujahid’s narration, as mentioned by Qurtubi, Ibn al-Qayyim, and Ibn Taymiyya, the other opposing it, as mentioned by al-Birzali and al-Suyuti.
It is evident that Ibn al-Qayyim collects as many Hanbali authorities as he can find in support of the narration of the seating. Yet he omits to mention Abu Muhammad al-Barbahari,Abu Bakr al-Najjad, Ibn Batta – although Ibn Abi Ya‘la mentions all three supported it in his Tabaqat – and his own teacher Ibn Taymiyya.
Ibn al-Qayyim also avoids the distinction between Mujahid’s version mentioning sitting with Allah and other versions mentioning simply “sitting”. He merely wishes to show that all these authorities supported the lattter, and cautiously sidesteps the thorny issue raised by al-Qurtubi in his discussion of the verse of the Exalted Station.
for more info... (Ref/Notes): Here

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Mu-hammed Salih al-`Uthaymin, Ibn Baz's

long-time Second Fiddle and his rightful heir and successor in strange and unusual rulings.
"Can the vision of Allah Most High in the hereafter be other than in a direction?"
(Sharh al-`Aqida al-Wasitiyya.)

Dr. Ahmad Hijazi Saqqa wrote:

"Shaykh Ibn `Uthaymin differentiates between the kursî and the `arsh.
He says (Sharh p. 15):
"The kursî is the place of the two feet, and the `arsh is that upon which Allah made istiwaa'."
The meaning of his words is that Allah sits on the `arsh and then places his feet on the kursî.
This is Anthropomorphism (tajsîm)
 
Furthermore, it is not permitted to differentiate (between kursî and `arsh), for the one who sits on the `arsh does not place his feet on the kursî; also, there are many texts adducing that the `arsh is the kursî.

"Shaykh Ibn `Uthaymin reinforces his anthropomorphism by saying (Sharh p. 42):
"It is established that Allah Most High has feet (al-qadam thâbit lillâhi ta`âlâ), and Ahl al-Sunna have explained the leg and foot (al-rijl wa al-qadam) as being literal according to what befits Allah (haqîqatan `alâ al-wajhi al-lâ'iq billâh); whereas the "People of Figurative Interpretation"
(By this expression are meant Ash`ari Sunnis, while the expression Ahl al-Sunna in these lines means the anthropomorphists!)
(Ahl al-Ta'wîl) have explained al-rijl as being the group which Allah will place in the Fire, and al-qadam as being those who are sent forth (muqaddamîn) to the Fire... and I reject and return their explanation to them on the grounds that it contravenes the external meaning of the words (mukhâlifun li zâhir al-lafz)."

"What inspired Shaykh Ibn `Uthaymin to say such words (as the feet or legs of Allah being literal) is the external meaning of hadiths such as the following: "al-Khallal said in Kitab al-Sunna on the authority of Qutat ibn al-Na`man who said: 'I heard the Messenger of Allah saying: "When Allah was relieved from His creation he established Himself over His Throne and reclined (istalqâ), placing one of His legs on top of the other (wa wada`a ihdâ rijlayhi `ala al-ukhrâ), and said: Verily it does not befit human beings."
Al-Dhahabi and others said: "Its chain of transmission is sound according to the criteria of Bukhari and Muslim."
And note well that the "Salafis" are the "People of hadith" (ahl al-hadîth), and that they do not practice figurative interpretation (la yu'awwilûn)!"
End of Dr. Saqqa's text.
(Saqqa, Daf` al-Shubuhat (p. 59)
---

Haafiz al- Hakami (1924- 1958)
a former head teacher at the Salafi colleges, has said,
"Indeed Allah descends to the lowest sky and in each sky He has a Kursi (chair), so when he comes down to the lowest sky, He sits on His Kursi (chair)……….. then when the morning comes, He ascends and elevates and goes and sits on His Kursi (chair)."
[Ma`aarij ul- Qubul, V. 1, p. 256]

---



Ibn Taymiyyah's claim that "there is no figurative expression (majaz) in the Qur’an"
Ibn Taymiya: al-Iman, 83, even in the use of such words as ‘hand’, ‘face’, ‘eyes’, ‘shin’, and the like with reference to Allah. He says, "Every word in the Book of Allah and His messenger is conditioned by that which clarifies its meaning, in none of which is there any figurative expression (majaz); rather, all of it is literal (haqiqa)" (ibid., 78).

Compare this with what Ibn Kathir says about the verse "Then He ‘was established’ (istawa) upon the Throne" (Qur’an 7:54), (istawa here rendered as "was established" not by way of definitive interpretation, but rather out of need to answer the question):


People have many positions on this matter, and this is not the place to present them at length. On this point, we follow the position of the early Muslims (salaf)—Malik, Awza‘i, Thawri, Layth ibn Sa‘d, Shafi‘i, Ahmad, Ishaq ibn Rahawayh, as well as others among the Imams of the Muslims, ancient and modern—namely, to let the verse pass as it has come, without saying how it is meant (bi la takyif), without any resemblance to created things (wa la tashbih), and without nullifying it (wa la ta‘til): the literal outward meaning (dhahir) that comes to the minds of anthropomorphists (al-mushabbihin) is negated of Allah [italics mine], for nothing created has any resemblance to Him: "There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him, and He is the All-hearing, the All-seeing" (Qur’an 42:11) (Ibn Kathir: Tafsir al-Qur’an al-‘Azim, 2.220).


This is precisely the position of tafwid or "consigning the knowledge of what is really meant by such scriptural expressions to Allah" that Ash‘aris like Imam Nawawi and many others held concerning such verses. It cannot be lost on you how far Ibn Kathir is from anthropomorphism, and I haven’t found anything else in his tafsir that suggests he followed the ideas of Ibn Taymiyyah or his student Ibn Qayyim in the literalism that gives the impression of likening Allah to created things.

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The Bedrock of Wahhabi/Salafi
 Aqeedah


The Bedrock :


al-Naqdh 'ala Bishr al-Marisi 


Wahhabi/Salafi prophet Ibn Taymiyyah highly praised this "Bedrock" as it's mentioned by his disciple Ibn al-Qayyim in his Ijtima' al-Juyush al-Islamiyyah:

 "وكتاباه من أجل الكتب المصنفة في السنة وأنفعها ، وينبغي لكل طالب سنة مراده الوقوف على ( ما كان ) عليه الصحابة والتابعون والأئمة أن يقرأ كتابيه ، وكان شيخ الإسلام ابن تيمية رحمه الله يوصي بهذين الكتابين أشد الوصية ويعظمهما جدا ، وفيهما من تقرير التوحيد والأسماء والصفات بالعقل والنقل ما ليس في غيرهما").

Here are some of the things that can be found in "al-Naqdh 'ala Bishr al-Marisi"

Which Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn al-Qayyim regard as one of the best books ever!

al-Naqdh 'ala Bishr al-Marisi:

- it's claimed that the peak of a mountain is nearer to Allah ta'ala than it's feet 

("من أنبأك أن رأس الجبل ليس بأقرب إلى الله تعالى من أسفله لأنه من آمن بأن الله فوق عرشه فوق سماواته علم يقينا أن رأس الجبل أقرب إلى الله من أسفله")

- it's claimed many many times that Allah ta'ala has a place (makan)* and it's explicitly stated that He subhanahu is in one place without being in another and in one location without being in another one 

("وأما قولك إن الله لم يصف نفسه أنه في موضع دون موضع، فإن كنت أيها المعارض ممن يقرأ كتاب الله ويفهم شيئا من العربية علمت أنك كاذب على الله في دعواك لأنه وصف أنه في موضع دون موضع ومكان دون مكان ذكر أنه فوق العرش") 

Note: This is Kufr just like the Jahmi belief that Allah ta'ala is literally in every place!

- it's claimed that Allah ta'ala has limits 

("والله تعالى له حد لا يعلمه أحد غيره ولا يجوز لأحد أن يتوهم لحده غاية في نفسه ولكن يؤمن بالحد ويكل علم ذلك إلى الله ولمكانه أيضا حد وهو على عرشه فوق سماواته؛ فهذان حدان اثنان") 

Note: One should look at the context of this saying! This is said as a respone to the saying that Allah ta'ala has no Hadd (limit), no Ghayah (restriction) and no Nihayah (end)!)

- a wrong hadith, where it's said that Allah sits on the Kursi and that there does not remain more than the space of four fingers on it 

("إن كرسيه وسع السماوات والأرض وإنه ليقعد عليه فما يفضل منه إلا قدر أربع أصابع ومد أصابعه الأربع وإن له أطيطا كأطيط الرحل الجديد إذا ركبه من يثقله"), is used in the argument against the Mukhalif

- it's tried to act as if Allah ta'ala has a mass (Thiql), which causes the throne to make a special sound, when He sits on it 

("ويلك فإن لم يكن على العرش بزعمك إلا آلاؤه ونعماؤه وأمره فما بال العرش يتأطط من الآلاء والنعماء؟ لكأنها عندك أعكام الحجارة والصخور والحديد فيتأطط منها العرش ثقلا، إنما الآلاء طبائع أو صنائع ليس لها ثقل ولا أجسام يتأطط منها العرش")

- it's claimed that Allah ta'ala moves and sits and stands up, when he wants - even though Harakah and Sukun are both Sifat of Ajsam!! - 

("لأن الحي القيوم يفعل ما يشاء ويتحرك إذا شاء ويهبط ويرتفع إذا شاء ويقبض ويبسط ويقوم ويجلس إذا شاء، لأن أمارة ما بين الحي والميت التحرك: كل حي متحرك لا محالة وكل ميت غير متحرك لا محالة")

- it's claimed that Allah ta'ala created Adam - 'alayhi salam - while touching (!) him 

("وولي خلق آدم بيده مسيسا: لم يخلق ذا روح بيديه غيره فلذلك خصه وفضله وشرف بذلك ذكره، لولا ذلك ما كانت له فضيلة من ذلك على شيء من خلقه إذ خلقهم بغير مسيس في دعواك")

- it's claimed that if Allah ta'ala wanted, he would rest upon the back of mosquito, so what about the throne 

("ولو قد شاء لاستقر على ظهر بعوضة فاستقلت به بقدرته ولطف ربوبيته فكيف على عرش عظيم أكبر من السموات السبع والأرضين السبع")

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In the introduction of An-Naqdh of Daarimi, it is mentioned that this book is being published in accordance with the instruction and directive of Ibn Taimiyyah and Ibn Qayyim, and both are in agreement with the views expressed by Daarimi. 

So after analysing this book of Saeed Uthman Darimi one will learn about the Tajseem which Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn Qayyim used to endorse.

•On page 33 of an-Naqdh, Darimi mentions that Allah Ta’ala has a limit, i.e. Allah Ta’ala is a finite being. The space He occupies also has a limit. He is on His Arsh above the heavens in space. These are two limits. In fact, it is mentioned that every person is more aware of Allah’s makaan than the Jahmis.
•On page 79 is mentioned that the negation of limit for Allah Ta’ala is the belief of the Jahmiyyah. Thus, it is clearly implied that Imaam Tahaawi al-Hanafi and all the Ulama and Aimmah of the Ahlus Sunnah who negate limits of any kind for Allah Azza Wa Jal, are Jahmis and Jahannamis.
•On page 84 of An-Naqdh is mentioned that Allah Ta’ala is seated on the Kursi, and there remains a space of four inches on the Kursi.
•On page 85 he mentions that if Allah Ta’ala desires, He can settle on the back of a mosquito. He adds, when by Allah’s power the mosquito can bear Allah Ta’ala aloft, then why the hesitation to accept Allah’s sitting on the Throne?
•On page 100 he states that the peak of a mountain compared to its foot, and the dome of a minaret compared to its base, are closer to Allah Ta’ala.
•On page 121 it is mentioned that Allah’s istiwa (i.e. literal sitting) on the Arsh is eternal. In other words, the Arsh is uncreated. It has no temporal origin. It is co-eternal with Allah Ta’ala.
•On page 286 he compares Allah’s ‘physical’ weight on the Arsh with stones and iron.

Ibn Taimiyyah and Ibn Qayyim are in support of all these idolatrous concepts which have created for Allah Ta’ala an anthropomorphic concept. 

Ibn Qayyim says this book is among the greatest books”.

Ibn Qayyim states in his book Ijtima‘ al-Juyoosh al-Islaamiyah:
“Al-Naqd ‘ala Bishr al-Murisi and al-Radd al-Jahmiyah [two books by al-Darimi] are among the greatest books ever written about the sunnah and the most beneficial and it behooves every student of the sunnah who desires to learn what the Companions and Followers and the imams used to believe to read his two books. Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taimiyah, may Allah show him mercy, used to recommend this book in the extreme, and he used to extol it greatly. In these two books tauheed and the names and attributes are discussed according to rational proofs and transmitted texts in a way that is not to be found in other than them."

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Sheikh Ibn 'Uthaymin: "وأما قولهم: "إن الله تعالى عن الجهات الست خال"، فهذا القول على عمومه باطل لأنه يقتضي إبطال ما أثبته الله تعالى لنفسه، وأثبته له أعلم خلقه به، وأشدهم تعظيماً له، وهو رسوله محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم من أنه سبحانه في السماء التي هي في جهة العلو، بل إن ذلك يقتضي وصف الله تعالى بالعدم، لأن الجهات الست هي الفوق، والتحت، واليمين، والشمال، والخلف، والأمام، وما من شيء موجود إلا تتعلق به نسبة إحدى هذه الجهات"; 
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The Prophet’s (s) Seating on the Throne
(IQ‘ÂD AL-NABÎ (S) ‘ALÂ AL-‘ARSH)
Dr. G. F. Haddad
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“Muhammad the Messenger of Allah (s) will be seated
by His Lord on the Throne next to Him.”
(Ibn Taymiyya)
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“Whoever imagines that our Lord sits on the Throne and leaves space at His side for His Prophet to sit, has followed the Christians who hold that ‘Isa was raised to heaven and sat next to his Father – Allah (swt) is clear of the partnership they ascribe to Him!”
(Al-Kawthari)
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(Article on this Blog Edited by ADHM)