Saturday, 28 August 2010

'Read', “I am not a reader.” ma ana bi qari’in




Wahhabi Question

"Was the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) illiterate?"

Quote:

“First of all, we’d like to state that Almighty Allah chose Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) even though he had grown up as an orphan and was totally illiterate."

Quote:
"Dr. Rif`at Fawzi, professor of Shari`ah at Cairo University, adds:
Yes, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was an illiterate. This clearly indicates the Divine nature of the Glorious Qur’an that was revealed on Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) who had grown up as an orphan and was illiterate, knowing neither how to read nor write.


source: Here
---



The phrase “totally illiterate” is disrespectful 
when Quran teaches us not to even use the word “RA’INA” in spite of the fact that Ra’ina could have both good and bad meaning, even illiterate itself is bad adab, one should use the word un-lettered.

Many deep thinkers in Ahlus Sunnah believe that Prophet (Peace be upon him) was taught how to "READ AND WRITE AFTER NABUWAH" and there are many proofs over it.


Quran states: And thou wast not (able) to recite a Book before this (Book came), nor art thou (able) to transcribe it with thy right hand: In that case, indeed, would the talkers of vanities have doubted. [Surah al-Ankaboot (29), Verse. 48]

This verse is proving that Prophet (Peace be upon him) was not able to read (and write) "BEFORE QURAN AND NABUWAH WERE GIVEN TO HIM" which means he did indeed was taught to read and write after them.
Even the verses of Surah al-Alaq prove that Prophet (Peace be upon him) did not know how to read and write initially but when Jibreel (alaih salam) held him firm he did get to know how to read. Also the verses ahead beautifully state:He Who taught (the use of) the pen. Taught man that which he knew not. (96:4-5)

So this includes Sayyidna Muhammad (Peace be upon him) too because Allah is glorifying the virtue of being taught by the pen.



Narrated Al-Bara: When the Prophet intended to perform 'Umra in the month of Dhul-Qada, the people of Mecca did not let him enter Mecca till he settled the matter with them by promising to stay in it for three days only. When the document of treaty was written, the following was mentioned:

 'These are the terms on which Muhammad, Allah's Apostle agreed (to make peace).' They said, "We will not agree to this, for if we believed that you are Allah's Apostle we would not prevent you, but you are Muhammad bin 'Abdullah." The Prophet said, "I am Allah's Apostle and also Muhammad bin 'Abdullah." Then he said to 'Ali, "Rub off (the words) 'Allah's Apostle' ", but 'Ali said, "No, by Allah, I will never rub off your name."

So, Allah's Apostle took the document and wrote, 'This is what Muhammad bin 'Abdullah has agreed upon: No arms will be brought into Mecca except in their cases...

This hadith proves beyond any shadow of doubt that Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) was taught how to write, otherwise he would not have taken the document and
"ALTERED IT HIMSELF"




Ibn Abbas reported: When Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) was about to leave this world, there were persons (around him) in his house, 'Umar b. al-Kbattab being one of them. Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Come, I may write for you a document; you would not go astray after that. Thereupon Umar said: Verily Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) is deeply afflicted with pain. You have the Qur'an with you. The Book of Allah is sufficient for us. Those who were present in the house differed. Some of them said: Bring him (the writing material) so that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) may write a document for you and you would never go astray after him And some among them said what 'Umar had (already) said. When they indulged in nonsense and began to dispute in the presence of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), he said: Get up (and go away) 'Ubaidullah said: Ibn Abbas used to say: There was a heavy loss, indeed a heavy loss, that, due to their dispute and noise. Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) could not write (or dictate) the document for them.

Please ignore the brackets saying
(or dictate) this is an interpolation by translator but actual wording of hadith clearly proves that Prophet (Peace be upon him) wanted to write himself.




A'isha reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) in his (last) illness asked me to call Abu Bakr, her father, and her brother too, so that he might write a document, for he feared that someone else might be desirous (of succeeding him) and that some claimant may say: I have better claim to it, whereas Allah and the Faithful do not substantiate the claim of anyone but that of Abu Bakr.


Anas reported that when Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) decided to write to the Kisri (the King of Persia), Caesar (Emperor of Rome), and the Negus (the Emperor of Abyssinia), it was said to him that they would not accept the letter without the seal over it; so Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) got a seal made, the ring of which was made of silver and there was engraved on it. (Mubammad. the Messenger of Allah).


Imam Aul Abbas al Qurtubi
the commentator of Sahih Muslim has proven from such ahadith that Prophet (Peace be upon him) knew how to read and write, he also answered how this does not oppose him being an Ummi Prophet and he uses the same first verse which I have shown above i.e Quran 29:48, he further states that this will be considered as your miracle and will "ADD MORE TO THE TRUTHFULNMESS OF YOUR PROPHETHOOD" [Refer to Al-Mufhim (4/637-638)]Imam Badr ud-din Ayni (rah), Imam al-Qadhi Iyaadh (rah), Imam al Baji (rah), Imam Abu Zar Harwi, Imam Abul Fath al Naysaburi and many other scholars have approved this fact.



---


"Was the Holy Prophet
(peace and blessings be upon him)
"totally illiterate"
?





The majestic Qur’an is the last book of all to be revealed by Allah (most high) which was revealed upon the last prophet of all, Prophet Muhammad, the Chosen One (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). It was revealed gradually over a period spanning twenty three years.



However, its first revelation occurred in the month of Ramadan as Allah (most high) states in verse 185 of Surat al-Baqara (2),
“The month of Ramadan is the one in which the Qur’an was revealed.”
In addition to that, the precise night on which the first revelation was revealed is stated by Allah (most high) in the first verse of Surat al-Qadr (97),
“Certainly, We have revealed this (Qur’an) during the Night of Power.”


The manner in which the first revelation occurred:

Imam Ibn Jarir al-Tabari writes that the Noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was in the Cave of Hira when an angel appeared and said,
“‘O Muhammad! I am Jibril (Gabriel) and you are the Messenger of Allah (most high)’, and then he said, ‘Read’.”

The Imam of the scholars of hadith,
Imam al-Bukhari, has related this episode of the first revelation from ‘A’isha Siddiqa (Allah be pleased with her) in his Sahih.


Its summary is presented as follows:

Whilst the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was in the Cave of Hira, suddenly an angel (Jibril) came to him and said, Read.”

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) replied, “I am not a reader.”
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) relates: Then he took hold of me, pressed me to his chest, released me and then said again,Read.”

I replied, I am not a reader.” Then he took hold of me, pressed me to his chest, released me and the third time said again, “Read.” 
I again replied, I am not a reader.” 

Then he took hold of me again, pressed me to his chest and upon releasing me, the fourth time – reciting the first five verses of Surat al-‘Alaq (96) – said, Read, in the name of your Lord, who created: created the human being from clotted blood. Read, for your Lord is Most Generous, who taught by the pen, taught the human being what he did not know.” 

Upon this, Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did not refuse, but received the revelation and came home.

Imam al-Bukhari has recorded this hadith in three separate places in his Sahih.

The first in Chapter 3 of the Book of Bad’ al-Wahy, the second in Chapter 1 of the Book of al-Ta‘bir and the third in Chapter 1 of Surat al-‘Alaq (96) in the Book of al-Tafsir.

In each of these three places, he has related this tradition from ‘A’isha Siddiqa (Allah be pleased with her). It is understood from this hadith that three times when Jibril merely said, ‘Read’, the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) refused to read.

However, the fourth time when he recited the complete five verses, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did not refuse. In this portion of the hadith, there is a phrase that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) uttered as he refused to read and that is ma ana bi qari’in (I am not a reader).

It is important to keep this phrase clearly in mind as it is the subject of this essay.

The phrase

ma ana bi qari’in’

The literal meaning of the phrase ma ana bi qari’in is I am not a reader’. In the grammar of the Arabic language, the word qari’in (in its Genitive State, or qari’un in its Nominative State) is a Derivative Noun in the form of the Active Present Participle (ism al-fa‘il), and hence – etymologically speaking – it can have the meaning of the Imperfect Tense (al-fi‘l al-mudari‘).


In this case, the aforementioned phrase would mean ‘I do not read’ or ‘I will not read’.



Based upon this, the phrase ma ana bi qari’in has three meanings;


‘I am not a reader’,

 ‘I do not read’ and ‘I will not read’.




However, some people have translated this phrase as:

‘I cannot read’ 
and others as 

‘I do not know how to read’.

If these meanings are taken into consideration or accepted, then this will imply that the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was displaying his incompetence, helplessness and constraint in front of Jibril.

As if he were saying, “How can I read when I do not know how to read?”

I find myself in complete disagreement with this translation.

Not only that, but I consider such a meaning offensive and such a translation an insult to the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). 

It is quite correct that one possible interpretation of this phrase can be ‘I cannot read’, however, in this specific place and in this specific context, this meaning is completely incorrect. When translating any phrase or text, it is imperative to take into consideration the context of that statement and also the position and status of the personality about whom the statement is being made. Otherwise, the meaning can be completely altered and misconstrued in its entirety. 

An example from the Qur’an will assist in making this issue clearer.

This entire issue is an intellectual one.

Through everyday examples I am attempting to make it easier for the readers to grasp the issue.

Consider the situation where there is an illiterate person standing before me who cannot read nor write and I ask him to read.

If I am aware that he cannot read then by asking him to do so, I am actually insulting him since he will not be able to read and will be embarrassed in front of the audience. On the other hand, if I am unaware of the fact that he cannot read then by asking him to do so, I am actually insulting myself since I am asking a person to do something that he does not have the ability to do.

In the same manner, if Jibril was aware that the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) could not read, then – al-‘iyazu billah – he is insulting the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).
Conversely, if Jibril is not aware that the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) cannot read, then – al-‘iyazu billah – he is insulting himself.

In reality, both of these scenarios are incorrect.

It is Allah (most high) Himself who teaches knowledge to the noble prophets (peace be upon them).

Before the advent of the first divine revelation, a prophet is stationed at that high rank of knowledge that he himself can read the revelation and teach the revelation. He is both a scholar (‘alim) of the revelation and teacher (mu‘allim) of it.

It is for this very reason that before the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), approximately one hundred and twenty four thousand prophets came and at the time of receiving the first divine revelation, none of them said, ‘ma ana bi qari’in’ (I am not a reader).

Was it then just the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) who could not read?

The reading of other noble prophets (peace be upon them)

Prophet Adam
(peace be upon him) continued to cry over his mistake for years on end, however, the glad tidings of acceptance of his repentance did not come. Then one day, Prophet Adam (peace be upon him) said, “O Lord! I ask you for the sake of Muhammad that You forgive me.” Allah (most high) replied, “O Adam! How have you come to know of Muhammad when I have not caused him to be born yet?” Prophet Adam (peace be upon him) said, “O Lord! When You created me I raised my head and saw that on the throne it was written la ilaha illallahu Muhammadur Rasulullah. So I understood that the name to accompany yours would only be of the most beloved to You of all creation.” Upon this, Allah (most high) stated, “You have spoken the truth, O Adam. He is the most beloved of all creation to Me. And since you ask Me for his sake, then I have forgiven you. And if Muhammad was not, then I would not have created you.” The particular incident of Prophet Adam (peace be upon him) reading from the throne occurred well before the time when he was taught the names of all things and the angels as well as the Shaytan were challenged to mention them. (Qur’an 2, 31-33)



Concerning Prophet Musa (Moses), Allah (most high) states in the Qur’an, “And We wrote about everything for him on the Tablets (of the Torah) as an admonition and making all things clear. ‘Hold to them strongly, and command your people to adopt the best in it, I will show you the home of the deviators!’” (Qur’an 7, 145) Concerning Prophet Isa (Jesus), Allah (most high) relates what he uttered as a baby in the lap of his mother, “I am indeed a servant of Allah. He has given me the Book and made me a Prophet.” (Qur’an 19, 30)

If Prophet Adam
(peace be upon him) could read the declaration of faith written on the throne, Prophet Musa (peace be upon him) could read the Torah written on the Tablets and Prophet Isa (peace be upon him) could read divine revelation in his mother’s lap, does it make sense that our beloved Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), who is the leader and Imam of all prophets, could not read the divine revelation even at the age of forty years?



Moreover, previous prophets were taught by Allah (most high) to read before the annunciation of prophethood, yet, our noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is being taught to read by Jibril after the annunciation of prophethood?


This scenario does not suit the grandeur and is not befitting to the status of the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).

The word ‘ummi’ often translated as ‘illiterate’ or ‘unlettered’

Another question is posed and that is when the Qur’an has stated that the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is an
ummi, and one meaning of this is ‘illiterate’ or ‘unlettered’, then how is it possible for him to read?


Well, in the Qur’an it also states, “It is He who raised up among the unlettered people a Messenger from them to recite His Revelations to them and purify them and teach them the Book and Wisdom, even though before that they were in open error.” (Qur’an 62, 2)


Furthermore, the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stated,

“Truly, I have been sent as a teacher.”

How can it be correct to consider the individual sent by Allah (most high) as a teacher and instructor of the entire Community as illiterate or unlettered.

There can possibly be an issue of the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) being illiterate prior to the annunciation of prophethood – although my research is contrary to that notion as well since not showing how to read or write is different to not knowing how to read or write

however, following the annunciation of prophethood when he has been made the teacher of the Book and Wisdom, it is incorrect to consider him illiterate.

The Arabic word ummi has many meanings including the following;

1. ‘The one who has an illiterate community’. One reason why the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is referred to as an ummi is that he was sent to an illiterate and unlettered community. Just as the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) has stated, “We are an unlettered community, we do not write nor calculate.” He also stated, “I have been sent to a community of the unlettered.” This is due to the fact that there was no custom of pursuing education amongst the people of Arabia. However, this does not denote that there was no literacy amongst them since the Companions who used to write the divine revelations were literate they could read and writeeven before the advent of Islam. Moreover, the non-Muslims from amongst the prisoners of the Battle of Badr who were selected to teach the children of Madina were also literate. Nonetheless, since the vast majority of them were illiterate, they were referred to as an illiterate community.

2.
‘The one who is as his mother bore him’. A mother is referred to as umm in the Arabic language. In this regard, an ummi is that individual who remains in the same natural state after being born from his mother’s womb and is not taught to read or write from any teacher. The noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) after being born did not learn to read or write from any teacher. On this basis, he is an ummi.


3. ‘The one who has a community’. Grammatically, just like the Arabic word makka is transformed to makki in order to form a Relative Adjective (al-ism al-mansub), similarly, from the word umma, the word ummi is formed meaning ‘the one who has a community’. The noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) has a community of his own, just as previous prophets had their respective communities, and hence they were also ummi.

Ibn Habban in his Sahih relates from Anas (Allah be pleased with him) that Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “On the Day of Judgement, each prophet will have a pulpit made of light and I shall be stationed upon the tallest of them and the most radiant. A caller shall then come and speak out, ‘Where is the ummi prophet?’ The prophets will respond, ‘All of us are ummi prophets, so to which one of us have you been sent?’ The caller shall return and the second time will call out, ‘Where is the Arab ummi prophet?’” Upon this, the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) shall descend from his pulpit. He will come forward and knock at the gate to paradise and for him the gate to paradise shall be opened.

If labeling an ordinary scholar or teacher of today as illiterate is insulting, then, referring to the greatest scholar amidst entire creation and the teacher of such a great book as the majestic Qur’an – the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) – as an ummi, meaning ‘illiterate’, is a point that demands sincere thought and contemplation.

When the word ummi has these other meanings that denote greatness and excellence, then, using a meaning that has some negative connotation or defective attribute within it is incorrect and wrong. If our noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is an ummi, meaning ‘illiterate’, then how did the other prophets become ‘literate’, yet they were also ummi prophets?

The negation of the Active Present Participle (ism al-fa‘il)

As has been mentioned earlier that the word qari’in, in the phrase ma ana bi qari’in, is in the form of the Active Present Participle (ism al-fa‘il). Generally, when the Active Present Participle is negated, it does not negate the strength, ability and capability of performing the action of the verb; rather, it merely denotes that the action of the verb is not being performed due to some other reason.

In verse 4 of Surat al-Kafirun (109) it is stated, “Wa la ana ‘abidun ma ‘abadtum.” As the word used in this verse is in the form of the Active Present Participle, this phrase can also have three meanings; ‘I am not a worshipper of what you worship’, ‘I do not worship what you worship’ and ‘I will not worship what you worship’.

No one has translated this verse as ‘I do not have the ability to worship the idols you worship’. What this actually means is that the ability and capability of worshipping the idols exists, but, worshipping idols will not be done because they are not worthy of worship. If the ability was not there in the first place, then there would have been no reward for this statement.

It is like a blind man saying that he has never seen a non-mahram woman. There is neither any virtue in this statement nor any reward, since the original capability of performing such an act is not present.

Another example of this kind, from amongst many, can also be found in the Qur’an. Allah (most high) states, “They said, ‘Hud, you have not brought us any clear sign, and we are not about to abandon our gods at your word; we are not believers in you’.” (Qur’an 11, 53)

Again here in the Arabic, the negation of abandoning gods and believing in Prophet Hud (peace be upon him) has been mentioned using the Active Present Participle. This clearly does not mean that the people did not have the ability to abandon their false gods and believe in Prophet Hud (peace be upon him); rather, this would not happen since they did not want to forsake the way of their forefathers.


In addition, consider the incident of Habil and Qabil, the two sons of Prophet Adam (peace be upon him), mentioned in the Qur’an. It states that Habil said to Qabil, “Even if you do raise your hand against me to kill me, I am not going to raise my hand against you to kill you. For, truly I fear Allah, the Lord of all the worlds.” (Qur’an 5, 28)

Here, also, the negation of Habil of not raising his hand against his brother to kill him, has been mentioned using the Active Present Participle. The phrase used is ma ana bi basitin (which has the same grammatical structure as ma ana bi qari’in). This does not mean that Habil did not have the strength or ability to raise his hand; rather, he would not do as such because he feared Allah (most high). Furthermore, Imam Qurtubi in his exegesis writes that according to the vast majority of the exegetes of the Qur’an, Habil was much stronger than Qabil. It is for this reason that whilst Habil was asleep, Qabil struck him with a rock causing his death.

The wisdom in the noble Prophet
(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) not reading


Only Allah (most high) knows the actual motives and wisdoms behind the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) not reading at that auspicious moment of receiving the first divine revelation.


However, one of them could be that since it is necessary to begin every chapter of the Qur’an with the name of Allah (most high) and Jibril, in the first three instances, merely said ‘read’ without the name of Allah (most high), the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) refused to read saying, “I will not read.” In other words, the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is clarifying that if he were to instruct all his followers to begin every action with the name of Allah (most high), how is it possible that he himself begin this divine message and start to read without invoking the name of Allah (most high).


The knowledge of prophets

If it is assumed that at the instance of the first divine revelation, the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did not have the ability to read and that Jibril was teaching him how to read, then this would implicitly cause a suspicion that the knowledge of Jibril is greater and surpasses that of the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him),
however, this is incorrect.

The reason for this is that the Qur’an indicates that if the knowledge of all angels was put together, it would not be able to match the knowledge of any single prophet.

To understand the scope of the knowledge of just the angel of death, consider what Imam Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti mentions in his commentary of verse 11 of Surat al-Sajda (32)

He relates that the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was asked,

 “There is only one angel of death, yet, when two armies fight each other in the west and the east and fatalities occur, how is it possible for the angel of death to take the souls of all these?”

The noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) replied,

 “Allah (most high) has compressed the entire world for the angel of death just like a tray of food is placed before you. Hence, nothing in the world can escape the grip of the angel of death.”

In comparison to the angel of death, consider the following tradition reported in the Sahih of Imam Muslim.

Abu Hurayra narrates that the angel of death was sent to the Prophet Musa (peace be upon him). When he came to him, Prophet Musa (peace be upon him) slapped him and his eye fell out. He returned to his Lord and said, “You sent me to a servant who does not intend to die!” Allah (most high) returned his eye and sent him back to inform Prophet Musa (peace be upon him) that he may place his hand over a bull and he will have for each hair under his hand an extra year.

Furthermore, Jibril – who brought down the revelations – himself was not aware of the meanings of the individual letters of the alphabet (al-huruf al-muqatta‘a) that are mentioned in the Qur’an, such as alif, lam, mim, ya, sin, etc. 

Since, these words were secrets of love that were only between Allah (most high) and the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). No other prophet or angel is aware of their meaning.

When Allah (most high) questioned the angels of the names of the things in order to demonstrate the excellence and greatness of Prophet Adam (peace be upon him), all angels including Jibril and in addition Shaytan were also addressed.

However, these angels including Shaytan displayed their shortcoming in front of the knowledge of Prophet Adam (peace be upon him) and in accordance with the command of Allah (most high), the angels fell into prostration. 

If all angels were left in a state of debility, helplessness and constraint in front of the knowledge of Prophet Adam (peace be upon him), then what would be the station and rank of the knowledge of the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) who is the beloved of Allah (most high), leader and sovereign of all prophets and, in the sanctuary of Bayt al-Maqdis, he is the Imam of all including Prophet Adam (peace be upon him)?

To get an indication of the knowledge of the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), one narration, at the end of this essay, is presented that shall clarify the issue.

Imam al-Qastalani reports that when the noble Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was born, the angel in charge of the garden of paradise came and said in his ear,

“O Muhammad! Glad tidings are for you! All of the individual types of sciences and knowledge that Allah (most high) had bestowed to all prophets, He has placed all of them in you. Therefore, your knowledge is far greater than all prophets and your heart is far braver than theirs.”

The beauty of Joseph, breath of Jesus and
Moses’ luminous hand;
An attribute each had, but you alone
are attributed with all.

Prophets, all came with miracles given by God;
Prophet of ours, came as a miracle sent by God.
---



Could Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) Read?
In light of the first divine revelation of the Qur'an



By Shaykh Muhammad Imdad Hussain Pirzada, December 2006
From a lecture delivered at the Leeds Makkah Masjid (UK) on Sunday 17 December 2006

[For footnotes and references please consult the PDF of this article]
---





The dear Prophet sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam
himself said:
“Indeed Allah and His Prophet (sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam) are not in need of counsel
from anyone but Allah has made the practice of seeking opinions a mercy upon my
ummah. He who seeks advice from others will find guidance and he who refuses will
inevitably commit mistakes”.

ibn ‘Adi and Bayhaqi narrate this from ibn ‘Abbas radiyAllahu ta’ala anhuma with a Hasan [good] chain. Bayhaqi has it in Shu’b al-Iman, Hadith 7542, Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyah, Beirut – 6/77; Durr al-Manthur from Bayhaqi and ibn ‘Adi. Maktaba Ayatullahal-‘Azmi, Qum, Iran – 2/90

Imam Hasan al-Basri says:
“Allah knows that rasulAllah sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam does not need their advice but His will is to make it a Sunnah [for the ummah]”.

Sa’eed bin Mansur narrated it in his Sunan and also ibn Mundhar, Bayhaqi and Abu Hatim. al-Mawahib al-Ladunniya, al-Maqsad al-Rabi’, al-Fasl al-Thani, al-Maktab al- Islami, Beirut – 2/601

Al’laah Alone Is The Teacher Of The Holy Prophet
(Sallallahu Alaihe-e-Wa-Sallam)
وَعَلَّمَكَ مَالَمْ تَكُنْ تَعْلَمْ وَكاَنَ فَضْلُ اللهِ عَلَيْكَ عَظِيْمًا
“And He (Al’laah) taught you all that which you knew not. And great is the Grace of Al’laah upon you.” [Surah An Nisa Verse.113]

“The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihe-e-Wa-Sallam) informed us of all that which had happened in the past and he also told us about all that which was going to happen in the future.
[Sahih Muslim Pg.390 Vol.2]

وَعَلِمْتُ مَافِى السَّمَوَاتِ وَاْلاَرْضِ
“Thus I became aware of everything that is in the skies and on the earth.”
[Mirkaat Pg.310 Vol.2 - Ash'atul Lam’aat Pg.333 Vol.1]


Allama Muhammad bin Ali Khaazin quoted one of the sayings of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihe-e-Wa-Sallam) in his Tafseer:
مَابَالُ اَقْوَامٍ طَعَنُوْا فِىْ عِلْمِىْ لاَ تَسْئَلُوْ نِىْ عَنْ شَئٍ فِىْ مَابَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَ السَّاعَةِ اِلاَّ نَبَّاَءَتُكُمْ بِهِ
“What is the condition of those nations who have mocked my knowledge? Ask whatever your heart pleases between me and Qiyamaah and I will inform you of it. [Tafseer Khaazin Pg.382 Vol.1]

Hazrat Allama Abdul Wahab Sha'rani says that Sheikh Mohiyud’deen ibn Arabi said:
“There is not a single person on this earth that has not acquired from the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihe-e-Wa-Sallam) be it Ambia or Awliyah. Be he of this Shariat or of the past Shariat.”

Hazrat Sha’rani also says: “(It must be mentioned) the assistance of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihe-e-Wa-Sallam) is for all the Ambia and Mursaleen and the Aqtaab from the beginning of humanity up to Qiyamaah.
It is obvious from the verses of the Qur’aan Majeed and the authentic books of Tafseer that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihe-e-Wa-Sallam) is the teacher of the entire universe and Almighty Al’laah has taught every language to the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihe-e-Wa-Sallam).
---

Narrated Ja'far ibn Muhammad al-Sufi:
I asked Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Ali al-Rida, peace be upon them both, saying: "O son of the Allah's Apostle, why was the Prophet called the Ummi?" He answered: "What do the people say?". I said: "They claim that he was called the Ummi because he was illiterate." He replied: "They lie! May the curse of Allah be upon them for this. Allah has clearly said in His Book: "He it is Who sent among the Ummi a Messenger from among themselves, to recite to them His Verses (i.e. the Qur'an), to purify them, to teach them the book (i.e. literacy) and to teach them wisdom (i.e. knowledge and ethics). [Qur'an 62:2]."
How would he teach what he himself could not do? By Allah, Allah's Apostle used to read and write in 72, or he said 73, languages. He was called the Ummi because he was from Makkah. Makkah is one of the mother (umm) towns, and this is why Allah the High and Exalted said: 'So that you (Muhammad) may warn the mother (umm) town (i.e. Makkah) and whoever is round about it'."
[Muhammad ibn Ali ibn al-Husayn ibn Babuyah al-Saduq, Ilal al-Sharai (Beirut, Lebanon: Muasassat al-A'lami lil Matbu'aat; first edition, 1988) vol. 1, p. 151, Chapter 105, Hadith Number 1.]
---
Imam Tabari, Hafidhh ibn Kathir and Imam Qurtabi write, Qattadah reported that:

The Holy Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said that:


“I was created before every one and I came at the end of all the Prophets.”

[Tafsir Tabari, Tabareeh, Qurtabeah, Ibn Kathir, and under the verse of Surah Ahzab(Qur’an)]
Imam Ahmad 12 narrated from the way of Budail, from Abdullah b. Shaqīq, from Maysarat Al-Fajr that he said: “I said: O Prophet of Allah, when did you become a Prophet? He said: While Adam was still in a midway phase between spirit and body”. That is how Al-Baghawi and Ibn Al-Sakan narrated it in ‘Al-Sahabah’. Al-Hāfi said 13: and that is a strong chain.




---



Volume 7, Book 70, Number 573:


Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:
When Allah's Apostle was on his death-bed and in the house there were some people among whom was 'Umar bin Al-Khattab, the Prophet said, "Come, let me write for you a statement after which you will not go astray." 'Umar said, "The Prophet is seriously ill and you have the Qur'an; so the Book of Allah is enough for us." The people present in the house differed and quarrelled. Some said "Go near so that the Prophet may write for you a statement after which you will not go astray," while the others said as Umar said. When they caused a hue and cry before the Prophet, Allah's Apostle said, "Go away!"

Narrated 'Ubaidullah: Ibn 'Abbas used to say, "It was very unfortunate that Allah's Apostle was prevented from writing that statement for them because of their disagreement and noise."



---




'Read', “I am not a reader.” 
ma ana bi qari’in



Watch video in Urdu/Punjabi:
listen carefully at 15:00: Here
---


 (ADHM)