Saturday, 6 March 2010

The Hadith of Thuwaiba (Milad un Nabi)



The Hadith of Thuwaiba




Narrated 'Ursa:

Thuwaiba was the freed slave girl of Abu Lahb whom he had manumitted, and then she suckled the Prophet. When Abu Lahb died, one of his relatives saw him in a dream in a very bad state and asked him, "What have you encountered?"

Abu Lahb said, "I have not found any rest since I left you, except that I have been given water to drink in this (the space between his thumb and other fingers) and that is because of my manumitting Thuwaiba."
[Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 62, (Book of Marriage kitab Al Nikah ) Number 38]

The hadith of Thuwaiba is in the Sahih of Imam Bukhari, Kitab-ul-Nikah who quotes this from his own Shaykh, Imam Abdul Razzaq who was the student of Imam e Aazam, Abu Hanifah (ra).
It is also quoted by Imam Ibn Asqalani in “Fath al bari, Hafiz Ibn Katheer, Imam Bayhaqi, Imam Sohaili, Imam Baghawi, Imam Qurtubi, Imam Jawzi, Imam Mullah Ali Qari, and Imam Abdul Haq Muhaddith Delhvi (ra).

Firstly some critics have argued that,
since it is an Islamic principle that a pious act done by a kafir is not rewarded in the Hearafter how can Abu Lahab benefit?

Imam Razzaq discusses this subject in his “Musanaf” (vol 7 p. 478) as does Imam Abdul Haq Muhaddith Delhvi (ra). They state that this is the Khasais (Specilaity) of the Holy Prophet (sal allahu alayhi wa sallam)) and an exception just reserved for him. 

Imam Ibn Kateer in “Seerat un Nabawiyyah” (vol. 1 pg 224) states this is because of the fadl and kirama of Holy Prophet (sal allahu alayhi wa sallam0) who is given this exception and is reiterated by Imam Suyuti, Imam Shaybani, Ibn Hashim and Imam Baghawi too. Moreover in a Hadith of Sahih Bukhari the Holy Prophet (sal allahu alayhi wasallam)) states that his uncle, Abu Talib will benefit from his intercession which is again part of the ‘qisayse muhammadiyy’


A second criticism leveled at this Hadith is that,

the event has been narrated in the form of a dream and so loses some of its integrity.

^This again is not a valid point. This Hadith has been accepted by Imam Bukhari in his Sahih who is one of the greatest muhaddith of Hadith so we cannot object to it.

If this dream was not to be accepted then why did he bother to accept it?

Moreover this is a narration of Hadrat Abass (rad) and if had considered the dream as unimportant then he too would not have narrated it and rejected it as insignificant.
Both of these great men as well as the other scholars mentioned earlier all considered the Hadith as authentic and used it in arguments pertaining to the legality of the Mawlid.

A third criticism is that Hadrat Abass had this dream when he was a not a Muslim and he is quoting something said by another non-Muslim thus querying its authenticity.

^Again this is not a valid critique. When we take this Hadith as evidence that celebrating the birth of the Prophet (sal allahu alayhi wa sallam)) is rewarded , the base of this argument has no link with the aqueeda of Abu Lahab and the information he gives. The evidence is based on the narration of Hadrat Abass (rad). If he was not a Muslim at the time of the dream, he was a Muslim when he reported it!

It is part of the Usool of Hadith, legal and juristic principles, that the narrator of Hadith must be a Muslim.

Hadrat Abass narrated this dream in his capacity as a Companion of the Holy Prophet (sal allahu alayhi wa sallam) whilst living in Madinah.

Had the hadith been useless then Imam Bukhari (rah) would not have mentioned it in his Sahih, It is there in the most authentic book because Ulama derived ruling from it, You will find explanation from many scholars on this specific hadith too in my article, kindly read it to full, here it is:

And Indeed everyone rejoices on birth of Prophet (Peace be upon him) except for Shaytan and his counterparts, because:

أن إبليس رن أربع رنات حين لعن وحين أهبط وحين ولد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وحين أنزلت الفاتحة


Translation:

Iblees cried loudly four times, First when Allah declared him as cursed, Second when he was thrown out,Third When Prophet (salallaho alaihi wasalam) was born and Fourth when Surah al-Fatiha was revealed
[Ibn Kathir in Al Bidayah wan Nihayah, Volume 2, Page No. 166]

Muslims rejoice on birth of Prophet (salallaho alaihi wasalam) because Allah has ordered us to rejoice on his Bounties and Mercies.”



قُلْ بِفَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَبِرَحْمَتِهِ فَبِذَلِكَ فَلْيَفْرَحُوا هُوَ خَيْرٌ مِمَّا يَجْمَعُونَ

Say: "In the bounty of God. And in His Mercy, in that let them rejoice": that is better than the (wealth) they hoard (10:58)


It is a direct order of Quran to rejoice on Allah's Mercy, so what could be a greater mercy than Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him)?

Some might argue that birth and sending of Prophet (salallaho alaihi wasalam) is not a mercy (Naudhobillah), some even falsely limit the Mercies of Allah by saying mercy mentioned here does not refer to Prophet Muhammad (salallaho alaihi wasalam) thus we should not rejoice, for best answers we have to understand Tafsir of Quran from Quran itself.



Nobel Quran states:

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً لِلْعَالَمِينَ

Translation: We have not sent you but as a “Mercy to the worlds"
(21:107)

رَحْمَةً لِلْعَالَمِين


Hence without any shadow of doubt arrival of Prophet (PBUH) is a Mercy not only upon us but all worlds and creations of Allah, thus we should rejoice as told in 10:58


Imam Ibn Jawzi (rah) explains 10:58 in his Tafsir:

أن فضل الله: العلم، ورحمته: محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم، رواه الضحاك عن ابن عباس.

Translation: Dhahak narrated from Ibn Abbas (ra) that Bounty means Knowledge (i.e of Quran and Tawhid) "whereas Mercy means Muhammad (Salallaho alaihi wasalam)"
[Ibn Jawzi Z'ad al Maseer fi Ilm at Tafsir, 4:40]


Imam Abu Hayyan al Andalusi (Rahimuhullah) also says:

الفضل العلم والرحمة محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم

Translation: Bounty refers to Knowledge "whereas Mercy refers to Muhammad (salallaho alaihi wasalam)" [Tafsir Al-Bahr al Muheet, 5:171]

Imam Jalal ud din Suyuti (Rahimuhullah) says:

وأخرج أبو الشيخ عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما في الآية قال: فضل الله العلم، ورحمته محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم، قال الله تعالى

{ وما أرسلناك إلا رحمة للعالمين }
[الأنبياء: 107].

Abu Sheikh (rah) narrated from Ibn Abbas (RA) That Bounty of Allah means Knowledge, whereas Mercy means Muhammad (Salallaho alaihi wasalam) Allah Ta'ala said: We have sent thee not but as Mercy to Worlds (Al Anbiya: 107)

[As-Suyuti in Dur al Manthur 4:330]


Allama Aloosi (rah) explains that even Fadhl (i.e. bounty) refers to Prophet Muhammad (salallaho alaihi wassalam)
وأخرج الخطيب وابن عساكر عنه تفسير الفضل بالنبـي عليه الصلاة والسلام 

Narrated by Al Khatib (rah) and Ibn Asakir (rah) that Bounty refers to An-Nabi (Alaih Salatu assalam) [Al-Alusi in Ruh al Ma’ani 11:141]


Nobel Quran:

ذَلِكَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ
That is the bounty of Allah; which He giveth unto whom He will. Allah is of Infinite Bounty. (62:4)

Hadrat Abdullah Ibn Abbas (Radhi Allah) explains “Allah is of infinite bounty” as- Allah is of infinite bounty) by bestowing Islam and prophethood upon Muhammad(Sallallahu Alaihe-e-Wa-Sallam); and it is also said this means: by bestowing Islam upon the believers; and it is also said this means: by sending the Messenger and Scripture to His created beings. [Tanwir al Miqbas min Tafsir Ibn Abbas]

Quran states regarding Yahya (a.s)

وَسَلَامٌ عَلَيْهِ يَوْمَ وُلِدَ وَيَوْمَ يَمُوتُ وَيَوْمَ يُبْعَثُ حَيًّا
So Peace on him the day he was born, the day that he dies, and the day that he will be raised up to life (again)! (19:15)

So the days when Anbiya are born are days of Salam in sight of Allah.

We sent Moses with Our signs (and the command). "Bring out thy people from the depths of darkness into light, and teach them to remember the “Days of Allah (بِأَيَّامِ اللَّهِ)." Verily in this there are Signs for such as are firmly patient and constant,- grateful and appreciative. (14:5)

What are the Ayyam of Allah?


Imam Baihaqi narrates in his Shuyab ul Iman that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said:
The Days of Allah are his blessings and Signs
[Tafsir Ruh ul Ma’ani under 14:5]

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Wahhabis/Salafis and Deobandis

You have a choice to celebrate it or not!

The Majority of Muslims celebrate
Milad-un-Nabi
 (Sallallahu Alaihe-e-Wa-Sallam

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Wahhabi-Salafis/Deobandis/Tablighi Cult


Note:



The Devil ^cried (let out a mighty scream)… on the day the Holy Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihe-e-Wa-Sallam) was Born!

Whoever is deprived of its good is really deprived!





On Celebrating The Prophet’s Birthday
Shaykh Abdullah Bin Bayyah
Translated by Suhaib Webb (Cairo, 2007)
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The Hadith of Thuwayba and
Mawlid al-Nabi

It is in a hadith of Bukhari that Allah reduced the punishment upon Abu Lahab for showing happiness at the birth of the Prophet sallAllahu 'alaihi wasallam.

Further reading: Here

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Sahih Bukhari

In Sahih Bukhari and in many other books of Traditions, this Hadith has been mentioned with a slight change of wording. In some narrations it is brief, in others it is detailed.
In Sahih Bukhari Vol 2 Pg. no. 764, the Tradition is as follows,


Hadhrat Urwah (May Allah SWT be well pleased with him) says, ‘Sobiya (May Allah SWT be well pleased with him) was a slave of Abu Lahab. Abu Lahab set her free, and she suckled the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam). When Abu Lahab died, someone from his family saw him in a dream, in the worst possible condition. The person asked him, ‘What did you get?’ Abu Lahab said, ‘After I was separated from you, I did not find any peace, except that because I freed Sobiya (May Allah SWT be well pleased with her), I am given a drink through this (i.e. the finger)

In the commentary of this Hadith, the interpreters Imam Badruddin A’aini (May Allah SWT shower His Mercy on him) and Imam Ibn Hajar Asqalani (May Allah SWT shower His Mercy on him) have mentioned the detailed Hadith in their respective books.


We will see here the Tradition mentioned by Imam A’aini (May Allah SWT shower His Mercy on him) in his book “Umdatul Qari Vol 14, Pg. no. 45;

“Hadhrat Abdullah bin Abbas (May Allah SWT shower His Mercy on him) says, ‘I saw Abu Lahab in a dream, one year after he died, in the worst possible condition. He said, ‘After separation from you, I did not find any peace; but on Monday the punishment is lessened. Hadhrat Ibn Abbas (May Allah SWT be well pleased with him) says that is because the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) arrived on that day. When Sobiya (May Allah SWT be well pleased with him) gave this good news to Abu Lahab, he set her free.

With some slight change of words, this Tradition is also mentioned in the following books:


Sunan Kubra by Imam Baihaqi, The Book of Nikah.

Jame Ul Ahadith Wal Maraseel, Masaneed us Sahabah, Hadith no. 43545
Kanzul 'Ummal Vol 6, Hadith no. 15725
Musannaf Abdul Razzaq, Vol 7, Hadith no. 13546.

From among the Pious Predecessors (Salaf saliheen), Hafiz Shamsuddin bin Jarazi and Hafiz Shamsuddin bin Nasiruddin (May Allah SWT shower His Mercy on them) have deduced about celebration of the arrival (Meelad) of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam).

Hafiz Shamsuddin bin Nasiruddin writes in his book Mawrud us Sawi

“It is an authentic Tradition that because Abu Lahab celebrated the arrival of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) by setting Sobiya (May Allah SWT be well pleased with her) free, on Monday the punishment in Hell is reduced."

Then he wrote some couplets.

Translation:

When this unbeliever, in whose condemnation “Tabbat yada” was revealed And he will remain in Hell forever.

If he celebrates the Arrival of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam), on every punishment is reduced, Then what rewards should be imagined for the one who celebrates the Arrival of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) all his life and passes away as a Muslim.


Also this has been mentioned in Sharh Zurqani, Vol 1, Pg. no. 261 and in Subul ul Huda war Rashad Vol 1 Pg. no. 367.

This Hadith is in the Sahih of Imam Bukhari, who quotes this from his own Shaykh, Imam Abdul Razzaq who was the student of Imam e Azaam, Abu Hanifah (ra).

It is also quoted by Imam Ibn Asqalani in "Fath al bari", Hafiz Ibn Kateer, Imam Bahaiqui, Imam Sohaili, Imam Baghawi, Imam Qurtubi, Imam Jawzi, Imam Mullah Ali Qari, and Imam Abdul Haq Muhaddith Delhvi (ra).


Another criticism leveled at this Hadith is that the event has been narrated in the form of a dream and so loses some of its integrity.This again is not a valid point.



This Hadith has been accepted by Imam Bukhari in his Sahih who is one of the greatest Muhaddith of Hadith so we cannot object to it.



If this dream was not to be accepted then why did he bother to accept it?



Moreover this is a narration of Hadhrat Abass (RA) and if had considered the dream as unimportant then he too would not have narrated it and rejected it as insignificant.


Wahhabi criticism is that Hadrat Abass had this dream when he was a not a Muslim and he is quoting something said by another non-Muslim thus querying its authenticity. 
Again this is not a valid critique. When we take this Hadith as evidence that celebrating the birth of the Prophet (sal allahu alayhi wa sallam)) is rewarded , the base of this argument has no link with the aqueeda of Abu Lahab and the information he gives. The evidence is based on the narration of Hadrat Abass (rad). If he was not a Muslim at the time of the dream, he was a Muslim when he reported it! It is part of the Usool of Hadith, legal and juristic principles, that the narrator of Hadith must be a Muslim. Hadrat Abass narrated this dream in his capacity as a Companion of the Holy Prophet (sal allahu alayhi wa sallam)) whilst living in Madinah.

ibn Qayyim also writes about the reduction in punishment:

“When the Prophet sallAllahu 'alaihi wasallam was born, Thuwayba went to her master, Abu Lahab, and said: Tonight, a son has been born in the house of Abdullah. Abu Lahab showed happiness by emancipating her. Allah did not waste this action of his and after his death; he is given water through that thumb.[Tuhfat al-Mawdud bi Ahkam al-Mawlud, p.19]

ibn Kathir has mentioned the freedom of Thuwayba and the reward she got from Abu Lahab in these words:
“When Thuwayba delivered the news of the birth, Abu Lahab freed her straight away due to which she was rewarded.” [al-Bidayah, 2:273]

ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab writes:

"Thuwayba, who was the freed slave of Abu Lahab, fed Rasolallah milk. Abu Lahab freed Thuayba at the time when she informed him that a son has been born at his brother's house. After the death of Abu Lahab he was seen in a dream, in which he said 'I am in severe punishment but this is lessened on Mondays'. He showed his forefinger and said 'I will suck from it because it was with this finger that I freed Thuwayba when she informed of the birth of the Holy Prophet (sallallahu 'alaihi wa aaleh), and she also fed the Holy Prophet milk'. Ibn Jawzi states: 'Abu Lahab is that kafir who has been specially referred to in the Qur'an. If such a person can be rewarded for celebrating the Mawlid of the Holy Prophet (sallallahu 'alaihi wa aaleh), then imagine how great the reward would be for a Muslim when he celebrates it' [Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab, M., Mukhtasar Sirat ar-Rasul, 'Milad an-Nabi']

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Yes, Please do continue here:  Part3